The construction industry holds its history from the day of human civilization. Building material is a material used for construction. Many present substances, like clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, are wont to construct buildings. Apart from present materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and a few less synthetic. The manufacturing of building materials is a longtime industry in many countries and therefore the use of those materials is usually segmented into specific specialty trades, like carpentry, insulation, plumbing, and roofing work. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes.

1. Asphalt Shingles | Construction materials

How are construction materials produced? - Sheet1
Asphalt Shingles_©Findlay Roofing

Shingles have to be tough to survive the scorching and bone-chilling temperatures a roof suffers. Once their roofing lifespan ends, shingles can be recycled into pavement projects such as patching potholes. Moreover, because asphalt shingles contain petroleum, they will even be repurposed as fuel for cement kilns and other operations.

2. Reclaimed Wood

How are construction materials produced? - Sheet2
Reclaimed Wood_©Altholz

Provenance, beauty, and strength—these are the characteristics that make reclaimed wood products so appealing to today’s designers and consumers. Many older buildings contain weathered wood products that will be milled and processed into stunning new products, like paneling, flooring, and countertops. Reclaimed timber can also be used for structural lumber in new building projects.

3. Steel | Construction materials

How are construction materials produced? - Sheet3

Steel is one of the most frequently recycled materials on the planet, for the simple reason that it doesn’t lose structural strength after being recycled. For quite 150 years, recycled steel has been utilized in new buildings, bridges, cars, and more. Recycled steel is a smaller amount expensive to supply than virgin steel. Plus, recycling steel causes far fewer carbon emissions than extracting new steel. In 2008, rubbish recycling was an $86 billion industry that supported 85,000 good-paying American jobs. Steel salvaging and similar recycling efforts help to offset the country’s deficit while replacing former manufacturing jobs.

4. Glass and Windows

How are construction materials produced? - Sheet4
Glass and Windows_©Exporters India

Like steel, glass is often repeatedly recycled with no loss of quality. Environmentally conscious consumers and businesses are drawn to glass because it’s inherently green—for every ton of glass that’s recycled instead of extracted, plenty of natural resources are saved. Windows salvaged from demolition sites can be recycled for any number of applications, from sandblasting to paving parking lots.

Currently, 40% of the country’s landfill stream consists of construction and demolition (C&D) debris. By salvaging the maximum amount as possible from buildings slated for destruction, demolition contractors can make a true difference for the earth. Because salvaging reduces demolition costs as well as landfill fees, building owners are naturally inclined to seek out demolition firms with salvaging expertise. The three basic steps of asset recovery identifying value, redeploying what can be reused on-site, and selling materials that can’t be used on site—bring capital to stakeholders. Looking to the future, demolition salvage techniques can only improve, so we can expect more of today’s buildings to be reincorporated into tomorrow’s edifices.

5. Bricks/Masonry Components

Bicks/Masonry Components_©UltraTech Cement
Bicks/Masonry Components_©UltraTech Cement

Bricks as masonry components have been predominantly used in the construction industry since the early centuries. Traditionally, the brick-making processes involve three fundamental steps: mixing the raw materials (earth-based materials such as clay and water), brick molding and drying, and finally, firing them to obtain appropriate strength. A significant shortcoming of this brick production process results in the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Luby et al.reveal that high pollution arises from brick kilns, which rely on coal technology, being primarily used to fire the bricks. Interestingly, their research on why such technology is still relied upon in Bangladesh reported that in most instances, brick buyers preferred bricks made from such kilns as opposed to more modern ones due to their lower costs. Similarly, kiln owners used them since they were able to generate a significant return of investment.

6. Reinforcement Materials for Buildings | Construction materials

Reinforcement Materials for Buildings_©Britannica
Reinforcement Materials for Buildings_©Britannica

Research reveals that agro-wastes are also being deployed in the manufacture of reinforcement materials for buildings. However, before examining their use, it is crucial to highlight findings from the previous section, which revealed that building materials developed from agro wastes were lightweight. For instance, Taurino et al. revealed that light-weight bricks could be developed by integrating clay and agro-wastes from wine less and grape seeds.


Pratiksha Mahakulkar is a third-year student pursuing architecture. An old school voracious reader and now explores her inner desire in writing out her mind and architecture. An impatient soul who can work efficiently when under pressure and approaching deadlines.