Modernist Architecture came into the world with the onset of industrialisation. With the invention of new materials and technology, the definition of architecture changed forever. As complex traditional buildings gave way to functional buildings, a lot of movements and ideologies emerged.  As each architect had his own set of theories it led to the construction of a wide variety of buildings throughout the globe. Here is a list of 50 modernist architects and their work.

1. Frank Lloyd Wright– Falling Waters, Pennsylvania (1939) | Modernist Architects

An icon of Organic architecture, built on a waterfall.

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Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater, Laurel Highlands© Image Courtesy by Mike Dobel © washingtonian.com
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Webmaster Wright House, Fallingwater © wright-house.com
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Frank Lloyd Wright integrated architecture into nature at Fallingwater © Image Courtesy by Robert P Ruschak ,© dezeen.com
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Frank Lloyd Wright integrated architecture into nature at Fallingwater © Image Courtesy by Corsini Classic Summer, Source- dezeen.com

2. William Holabird And Martin Roche- Marquette Building, Illinois (1895) | Modernist Architecture

One of the first steel-frame skyscrapers, Chicago school of Architecture.

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Marquette Building, Chicago, IL, USA, Image Courtesy J.Crocker ©commons.wikimedia.org
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Marquette Building, Chicago, Image Courtesy A. D. White Architectural Photographs, Cornell University Library © flickr.com
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Chicago Architecture Centre, Marquette Building ©architecture.org

3. Joseph Paxton- Crystal Palace, London (1851) | Architects Works

An Exhibition Building used steel trusses for aesthetics.

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Crystal Palace © lejsl.com
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The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, in 1851 © wikipedia.org/wiki/Great Exhibition
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Side view of the Crystal Palace in 1851© commons.wikimedia.org
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Crystal Palace Centre Transept & North Tower From South Wing An example of Modernist Architecture ©commons.wikimedia.org

4. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel- Eiffel Tower, Paris (1889)

A wrought-iron tower that glorifies the skyline of Paris

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The Eiffel Tower, Image Courtesy by Benh Lieu Song © commons.wikimedia.org
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Construction of Tour Eiffel © commons.wikimedia.org
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American soldiers watch as the Tricolor flies from the Eiffel Tower © commons.wikimedia.org

5. Antonio Gaudi-Sagrada Familia, Barcelona (2010) | Modernist Architects

A combination of Gothic and Art Nouveau.

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Sagrada Familia from Placa de Gaudi, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Image Courtesy C Messier © commons.wikimedia.org
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Sagrada Familia © klook.com
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Barcelona, La Sagrada Família, Image Courtesy Banja-Frans Mulder © commons.wikimedia.org

6. Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe-Seagram Building, New York (1958)

Integrates elements of functional aesthetics with modern architecture.

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Mies van der Rohe with Philip Johnson, Seagram Building © uk.phaidon.com
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The skyscraper centre, Seagram Building Image Courtesy Marshall Gerometta/CTBUH © skyscrapercenter.com
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The skyscraper centre, Seagram Building, Image Courtesy John W. Cahill/CTBUH © skyscrapercenter.com
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The skyscraper centre, Seagram Building, Image Courtesy John W. Cahill/CTBUH © skyscrapercenter.com

7. Le Corbusier- Villa Savoye, Paris (1931) | Modernist Architecture

An Internationalist building that lists Le Corbusier’s “5 points”.

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5 Points, Image Courtesy Erika Hrivikova © learnvray.com
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Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye, Poissy, France, Image Courtesy Valueyou © commons.wikimedia.org
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Montse Zomarana Photography © montsezamorano.com
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Montse Zomarana Photography © montsezamorano.com

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8. Walter Gropius- Fagus Shoe Factory, Alfred (1925) | Architects Works

Inspired by the Bauhaus school of Architecture.

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Fagus Factory, Image Courtesy Carsten Janssen © commons.wikimedia.org
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Fagus Factory, Image Courtesy Traveler100 © commons.wikimedia.org
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Fagus Factory © fagus-werk.com
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Fagus Factory © fagus-werk.com

9. Eric Mendelson- Einstein Tower, Potsdam (1921)

An astrophysical observatory depicts Expressionism.

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Einstein Tower in Potsdam, Germany, Image Courtesy Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam © commons.wikimedia.org
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Einstein Tower rear view, Image Courtesy By Marcus Winter from Potsdam © commons.wikimedia.org
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Einstein Tower, Image Courtesy H.Raab © flickr.com

10. Modern Architect Santiago Calatrava– City Of Arts And Sciences, Valencia (1998) | Modernist Architects

The iconic structure represents a giant eye.

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City of Arts and Sciences, Image Courtesy Jcca76 © commons.wikimedia.org
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Hemispheric Twilight – Valencia, Spain, Image Courtesy Diliff © commons.wikimedia.org
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Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe Image Courtesy HuseyinUlucay © commons.wikimedia.org

11. Richard Meier– Barcelona Museum Of Contemporary Art, Barcelona (1995) | Modernist Architects

A pearl amongst the old Gothic architecture of Barcelona.

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Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art Exterior, Image Courtesy Robertgombos © commons.wikimedia.org
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Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art Image Courtesy Zarateman © commons.wikimedia.org
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Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art © /miniguide.co

12. Michael Graves- Humana Building, Kentucky (1985)

Known as the “Milk Carton Building”, made out of pink granite.

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Humana Building, Image Courtesy Joseph © flickr.com
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Humana Building, Image Courtesy Eric © flickr.com
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Humana Building, Image Courtesy Marshall Gerometta/CTBUH © skyscrapercenter.com

13. M. Pei- Louvre Pyramid, Paris (1989) | Modernist Architecture

This glass and metal pyramid forms an entrance to the Louvre Museum.

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Louvre Pyramid, Image Courtesy Hteink.min © commons.wikimedia.org
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Louvre Pyramid, Image Courtesy Benh Leiu Song © commons.wikimedia.org
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Louvre Pyramid, Image Courtesy Alvesgasper © commons.wikimedia.org

14. Frank Gehry– Guggenheim Museum Bilbao (1980)

Deconstructivism building is made of stone, glass and titanium.

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Twilight exterior view of Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Image Courtesy PA © commons.wikimedia.org
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Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Image Courtesy Mikel Arrazola ©commons.wikimedia.org
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Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Image Courtesy PA ©commons.wikimedia.org
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Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Image Courtesy Georges Jansoone ©commons.wikimedia.org

15. Bernard Tschumi- The New Acropolis Museum, Athens (2001) | Modernist Architects

Built at the feet of the Parthenon, stores the archaeological treasures of Acropolis.

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Acropolis Museum © traveltoathens.eu
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Acropolis Museum © traveltoathens.eu
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Acropolis Museum © traveltoathens.eu

16. Zaha Hadid– Heydar Aliyev Centre, Azerbaijan (2007)

Deconstructive building, consists of fluid curves

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Zaha Hadid Architects© zaha-hadid.com
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Zaha Hadid Architects© zaha-hadid.com

17. Norman Foster-Gherkin Tower, London (2003)

Skyscraper based on the principles of passive design strategies.

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Gherkin Tower, Image Courtesy Aurelien Guichard © commons.wikimedia.org
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Gherkin Tower, Image Courtesy Paste © commons.wikimedia.org
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Gherkin Tower © netcredit.com

18. Rem Koolhaas- Cmg Headquarters, Beijing (2004) | Modernist Architecture

Due to its irregular shape, considered a structural marvel.

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CMG Headquarters, Image Courtesy Dayton12345 © commons.wikimedia.org
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CMG Headquarters, Image Courtesy Arup © skyscrapercenter.com
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CMG Headquarters, Image Courtesy Thomas Jaehndel © skyscrapercenter.com

19. Peter Eisenman- Holocaust Memorial, Berlin (2004)

Built-in the memory of the Jews victims, has 2,711 concrete slabs in a grid pattern.

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Holocaust Memorial, Berlin, Image Courtesy Alphamouse © commons.wikimedia.org
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Holocaust Memorial, Berlin, Image CourtesyAlexander Blum © commons.wikimedia.org
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Holocaust Memorial, Berlin, Image Courtesy Someformofhuman © commons.wikimedia.org

20. Cesar Pelli- The Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur (1993) | Modernist Architects

These twin towers are amongst the tallest in the world.

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The Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Image Courtesy James Kerwin from Tbilisi © commons.wikimedia.org
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The Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Image Courtesy Andy Mitchell from Glasgow © commons.wikimedia.org

21. Richard Rogers– The Pompidou Centre, Paris (1977) | Modernist Architects

The museum is built on the principles of High- Tech Architecture.

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The Pompidou Centre © frenchculture.org
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The Pompidou Centre © prestigeonline.com
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The Pompidou Centre, Image Courtesy Patrick Kovarik / Afp Photo © prestigeonline.com

22. Modern Architect Tadao Ando– Modern Art Museum Of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Texas (1892)

Made out of concrete and glass, an important landmark.

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Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Image Courtesy Joe Mabel © commons.wikimedia.org
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Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Image Courtesy Joe Mabel © commons.wikimedia.org
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Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Image Courtesy Riccardo Bianchini © inexhibit.com

23. Philip Johnson- Museum Of Modern Art, New York (1929) | Modernist Architecture

One of the most significant museums of modern art in the world.

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Museum of Modern Art, New York, Image Courtesy Timothy Hursley, Yoshio Taniguchi ©timothyhursley.com
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Museum of Modern Art, New York, Image Courtesy Timothy Hursley, Yoshio Taniguchi ©timothyhursley.com
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Museum of Modern Art, New York, Image Courtesy Timothy Hursley, Yoshio Taniguchi ©timothyhursley.com
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Museum of Modern Art, New York, Image Courtesy Timothy Hursley, Yoshio Taniguchi ©timothyhursley.com
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Museum of Modern Art, New York, Image Courtesy Timothy Hursley, Yoshio Taniguchi ©timothyhursley.com

24. Louis Kahn– National Parliament Building, Dhaka (1982)

One of the largest legislative buildings in the world.

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National Parliament Building, Image Courtesy Shahidul Hasan Roman © commons.wikimedia.org
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National Parliament Building, Image Courtesy Flickr user Justintravels © commons.wikimedia.org
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National Parliament Building, Image Courtesy Rossi101 © commons.wikimedia.org

25. Oscar Neymar– Cathedral Of Brasília, Brazil (1970) | Modernist Architects

A Hyperboloid structure is a Roman Cathedral.

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Cathedral of Brasília, Image Courtesy Albery Santini Júnior © commons.wikimedia.org
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Cathedral of Brasília, Image Courtesy Rodrigo de Almeida Marfan © commons.wikimedia.org
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Cathedral of Brasília, Image Courtesy Tampasteve © commons.wikimedia.org

26. Willian Van Allen- Chrysler Building, New York (1930)

An art deco skyscraper, tallest brick and steel building.

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Chrysler Building, Image Courtesy Samuel Gottscho © commons.wikimedia.org
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Chrysler Building © chryslerbuilding.com
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Chrysler Building, Image Courtesy Bridget Cogley © dezeen.com
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Chrysler Building, Image Courtesy Bridget Cogley © dezeen.com

27. John Utzon- Sydney Opera House, Sydney (1973)

One of the most iconic buildings of the 20th Century.

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Sydney Opera House, Image Courtesy Diliff © commons.wikimedia.org
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Sydney Opera House, Image Courtesy Hpeterswald© commons.wikimedia.org
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Sydney Opera House, Image Courtesy J.W.C. © www.commons.wikimedia.org

28. Renzo Piano- Whitney Museum Of American Art, Manhattan (1930) | Modern Architects Works

Consists of a network of galleries with cantilevered and public spaces.

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Whitney Museum of American Art, Image Courtesy Ajay Suresh from New York © commons.wikimedia.org
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Whitney Museum of American Art, Image Courtesy MusikAnimal © commons.wikimedia.org
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Whitney Museum of American Art, Photograph by Nic Lehou © whitney.org

29. Jean Nouvel- Louvre Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabhi (2017)

Inspired by the traditional Arab culture, a museum city floating on water.

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Louvre Abu Dhabi, Image Courtesy Mohamed Somji © travelandleisure.com
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Louvre Abu Dhabi, Image Courtesy Wikiemirati © commons.wikimedia.org
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Louvre Abu Dhabi, Image Courtesy Wikiemirati © commons.wikimedia.org

30. Eero Saarinen- Gateway Arch, Missouri (1965) | Modernist Architects

A structural marvel which is a symbol of St. Louis.

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Louis On The Mississippi River By Night, Image Courtesy Daniel Schwenderivative © www.commons.wikimedia.org
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The new Gateway Arch Park, anchored by Eero Saarinen’s historic monument, Image Courtesy Alex S. MacLean © arcspace.com
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The new museum entrance echoes the architecture of the Arch above. Image Courstesy Nic Lehoux © arcspace.com

31. Richard Neutra– Neutra Office Building, Los Angeles (1950) | Modernist Architects

The Studio of Neutra has gardens and residential complexes in the rare part of the complex.

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Neutra Office Building, Image Courtesy Bruce Boehner © commons.wikimedia.org
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Rebirth of Richard Neutra’s home,The Neutra © medium.com
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Rebirth of Richard Neutra’s home,The Neutra © medium.com

32. Rudolph Schindler- Lovell Beach House, Los Angeles (1926)

An important landmark in the early modernist architecture of America.

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Lovell Beach Hous, Image Courtesy Marvin Rand © commons.wikimedia.org
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Lovell House · Newport Beach, California, Image Courtesy Matt Nardella© www.greatbuildings.com
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Lovell House · Newport Beach, California, Image Courtesy Matt Nardella© www.greatbuildings.com

33. Minoru Yamasaki- World Trade Centre, New York (1987) | Modernist Architecture

Consisted of seven buildings originally, the twin towers were the tallest in the world when built.

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Vintage Manhattan Skyline, Source: Architectural Record, December, 1972© vintagemanhattanskyline.tumblr.com
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World Trade Centre, Image Courtesy Robert Paul Van Beets © archdaily.com
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World Trade Centre, Image Courtesy Sander Lamme © commons.wikimedia.org

 34. Alvar Altao-Aalto Theatre Opera House, Essen (1988)

The design for this Opera house was selected by the means of an Architectural competition.

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Aalto Theatre Opera House, Image Courtesy Tuxyso © commons.wikimedia.org
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Aalto Theatre Opera House © theater-essen.deAalto
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Theatre Opera House, Image Courtesy Thomas Robbin © commons.wikimedia.org

 35. Vladimir Shukhov, Shukhov Tower, Polibino(1896) | Modernist Architects

The world’s first Hyperboloid structure, an engineering marvel.

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Worlds First Hyperboloid in Polibino photo Image Courtesy Arssenev © commons.wikimedia.org
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Shukhov Tower in Polibino photo Image Courtesy Arssenev © commons.wikimedia.org
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Worlds First Hyperboloid in Polibino photo Image Courtesy Donskoy © commons.wikimedia.org

36. Paul Rudolf– Yale Art And Architecture Building, Connecticut (1963)

One of the first buildings of Brutalist Architecture in America.

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The expanded Art and Architecture Building at Yale University, Image Courtesy Sage Ross © commons.wikimedia.org
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Yale School of Architecture © ctexplored.org
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The Paul Rudolph Hall © yalestories.wordpress.com

37. Louis Sullivan– Prudential Building, New York (1896)

Now a historic landmark, based on Sullivan’s “Form Follows Function.”

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Prudential Building, Image Courtesy Geoffmcc © commons.wikimedia.org
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Prudential Building © flickr.com
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Prudential Building, Image Courtesy Dıpendav To © commons.wikimedia.org

38. William Le Baron Jenney– Home Insurance Building, Chicago (1885) | Modern Architects Works

First tall metal and steel-framed building, demolished in 1930.

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Home Insurance Building, Image Courtesy Chicago Architectural Photographing Company © commons.wikimedia.org
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The Chicago Building of the Home Insurance Co. of New York ~ Design ~ 1884 © chicagology.com
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The Home Insurance Building, built in 1885, is seen at the northeast corner of Adams and LaSalle streets in Chicago © chicagotribune.com

39. Victor Horta- Hôtel Tassel, Belgium (1893)

First true Art Nouveau Building, characterised by whiplash lines.

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Hotel Tassel, Image Courtesy Karl Stas © commons.wikimedia.org
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Hotel Tassel © http://www.irismonument.be/nl.
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Hotel Tassel © http://www.irismonument.be/nl.

40. Adolf Loos-Villa Müller, Prague (1930) | Modernist Architects

One of the first buildings to combine aspects of the economy with modernity.

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Villa Müller, Image Courtesy Hpschaefer © commons.wikimedia.org
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Villa Müller, Image Courtesy Miguel Miranda© flickr.com
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Villa Müller, Image Courtesy Miaow Miaow © commons.wikimedia.org
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Author

Rishika Sood is a student of architecture, currently in her third year. She has a keen interest in exploring buildings and aspires to work towards the conservation of historic monuments. She is particularly drawn indigenous art, craft and lives of the craftsmen associated with it.

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