India, a land of diverse cultures, languages, and traditions, is also a treasure trove of architectural wonders that reflect its rich heritage and history (Deshpande, 2019). The architectural landscape of India is not just about static monuments; it also plays a dynamic role in the celebration of festivals. This article explores the fascinating interplay between architecture and festivals in the Indian context, shedding light on how these two aspects are intricately woven into the tapestry of Indian life.

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Lokhandwala_H. (2021); Buzz, B. (2015); Desk, C. (2023).
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Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Pooja and Creative Pandals with temporary setups ephemeral in nature
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Architecture as a Cultural Reflection_Deshpande. R (2021)

Architecture as a Cultural Reflection

Architecture in India is a reflection of its multicultural identity, which is beautifully showcased through its temples, mosques, palaces, and monuments (Dey, 2017). The country’s architectural heritage dates back thousands of years and is a testament to the skills and aesthetics of various dynasties that have ruled its regions. Each architectural marvel in India tells a unique story of its time, blending various styles and influences.

  1. Ancient Marvels: The temples of Khajuraho, for instance, are renowned for their intricate carvings that depict various aspects of life (Deshpande, 2019). These temples are not just architectural marvels but also serve as a backdrop for the annual Khajuraho Dance Festival. The dance festival takes place against the backdrop of these stunning temples, highlighting the fusion of architecture and culture.
  2. Islamic Influence: India’s Mughal architecture, with its grandeur and intricate designs, has a deep connection with Islamic culture (Gulati, 2016). The Taj Mahal, one of the world’s most iconic buildings, is a testament to this architectural fusion. It stands as a symbol of love and devotion and is also the site of an annual Urs festival, which commemorates the death anniversary of Sufi saint, Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya. The architecture of the Taj Mahal is an integral part of this festival’s ambience.
  3. Colonial Heritage: British colonial architecture has left an indelible mark on India, with buildings like the Victoria Memorial in Kolkata and the Rashtrapati Bhavan in Delhi (Sinha, 2018). These architectural gems are not only symbols of the colonial past but also host various cultural events and exhibitions, often coinciding with Indian festivals.
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The Symbiotic Relationship between Architecture and Festivals_Kothari  D and Ramji Om (2020)

The Symbiotic Relationship between Architecture and Festivals

Indian festivals are not just religious or cultural events; they are immersive experiences that engage all the senses (Kumar, 2015). The architecture surrounding these festivals enhances the overall experience by providing a visual and spatial context to the celebrations. Here are some examples that showcase this symbiotic relationship:

  1. Diwali and Illuminated Architecture: Diwali, the festival of lights, is celebrated with great pomp and show across India (Dey, 2017). Houses and public buildings are adorned with decorative lights and intricate rangoli patterns. The architecture itself becomes a canvas for this dazzling display of light and colour. Iconic structures like the Jaipur City Palace and the Howrah Bridge in Kolkata are illuminated spectacularly during Diwali, creating a magical ambience that draws visitors from all over.
  2. Navratri and Temporary Structures: The festival of Navratri, celebrated with dance and music, is incomplete without the creation of temporary pavilions or “pandals” (Gupta, 2020). These pandals are known for their innovative and thematic designs, often inspired by traditional or contemporary architectural styles. For instance, pandals in Kolkata during Durga Puja showcase intricate terracotta art, while those in Gujarat may have a vibrant, folk-inspired architectural design.
  3. Kumbh Mela and Temporary Cities: The Kumbh Mela, one of the largest religious gatherings in the world, witnesses the construction of temporary cities along the banks of sacred rivers (Sinha, 2018). The architecture of these temporary settlements is a marvel in itself. It includes massive tents, pontoon bridges, and makeshift facilities that can accommodate millions of pilgrims. These architectural feats are vital for the success of the event and provide a unique backdrop to the spiritual and cultural experience.
  4. Ganesh Chaturthi and Creative Pandals: In Mumbai, Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated with immense enthusiasm, and the festival is known for its innovative and artistic pandals (Gulati, 2016). These pandals often draw inspiration from various architectural styles, including replicas of famous temples, monuments, and even contemporary landmarks. The elaborate pandals not only house the Ganesh idol but also serve as centres of community gatherings and cultural performances.
The Rituals and the context and its experience_Nath, P. (2021, March 22).

 Preservation and Conservation Challenges

While the interplay between architecture and festivals is undeniably fascinating, it also presents some challenges, especially in the context of architectural conservation. The heavy footfall and temporary structures during festivals can lead to wear and tear on heritage buildings. Additionally, the use of fireworks and open flames during celebrations poses a threat to the structural integrity of historic sites (Kumar, 2015). Striking a balance between preserving architectural heritage and allowing for festive celebrations is a delicate task.

  1. Conservation Measures: Government bodies and heritage organizations in India have recognized the importance of safeguarding architectural treasures during festivals (Sinha, 2018). Measures such as restricting fireworks near heritage sites, reinforcing structures, and promoting responsible tourism have been implemented to protect these valuable assets.
  2. Temporary Structures: The construction of temporary structures during festivals, while essential for the celebration, can harm the environment and local architecture (Deshpande, 2019). Efforts are being made to design eco-friendly and sustainable temporary structures that minimize their ecological footprint.
  3. Public Awareness: Creating awareness among the public about the significance of architectural heritage and responsible celebration practices is crucial (Gupta, 2020). Campaigns and initiatives that educate people about the need to respect and preserve architectural gems during festivals have been launched.


The intersection of architecture and festivals in the Indian context is a captivating journey through time, culture, and creativity. It is a testament to India’s ability to seamlessly blend its rich architectural heritage with vibrant and diverse festival traditions. From ancient temples to modern skyscrapers adorned with festive lights, India’s architectural tapestry continues to evolve and inspire (Dey, 2017).

As we celebrate the festivals that define our cultural identity, it is essential to recognize the importance of preserving our architectural heritage. Striking a balance between the two requires a collective effort from the government, heritage organizations, and the public (Kumar, 2015). This harmonious coexistence between architecture and festivals is what makes India’s cultural landscape truly unique and worth cherishing for generations to come.


Deshpande, A. (2019). “Architectural Heritage of India: A Journey through Time.” International Journal of Architectural Research, 13(2), 64-80.

Dey, S. (2017). “Indian Architecture: Its Vibrant History and Cultural Significance.” Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, 7(3), 241-257.

Gulati, R. (2016). “Mughal Architecture: A Blend of Islamic and Indian Styles.” International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 10(7), 857-875.

Kumar, V. (2015). “Cultural Heritage and Festivals in India: Their Significance and Preservation Challenges.” International Journal of Heritage Studies, 21(10), 1044-1060.

Gupta, R. (2020). “Temporary Structures and Cultural Significance: A Study of Festival Pandals in India.” Journal of Architectural Research and Development, 5(3), 28-36. 

Nath, P. (2021, March 22). Kumbh Mela 2021 – The Myth, The Rituals, The Experience. Yeh Hai India.

Kothari  D and Ramji Om (2020, August 24) India-Her Culture and Civilization, Documentary series on India`s Cultural Continuities. (n.d.).,-Documentary-series-on-India-colon-s-Cultural-Continuities-1.aspx

 Lokhandwala, H. (2021, August 5). Celebrate The 125th Year Of Ganeshotsav By Visiting These Iconic Pandals. LBB, Pune.

Buzz, B. (2015, October 22). 5 pandals you must visit this Durga Puja in Bhubaneswar – Bhubaneswar Buzz. Bhubaneswar Buzz.

Desk, C. (2023, September 16). Ganesh Chaturthi: Pune pandal to showcase Ram Mandir theme. Live India News.

Deshpande. R (2021, November 17)  Architecture of Indian cities: Top 10 cities for architects.


I am Navajyothi Mahenderkar Subhedar, a PhD candidate in Urban Design at SPA Bhopal with a rich background of 17 years in the industry. I hold an M.Arch. in Urban Design from CEPT University and a B.Arch from SPA, JNTU Hyderabad. Currently serving as an Associate Professor at SVVV Indore, my professional passion lies in the dynamic interplay of architecture, urban design, and environmental design. My primary focus is on crafting vibrant and effective mixed-use public spaces such as parks, plazas, and streetscapes, with a deep-seated dedication to community revitalization and making a tangible difference in people's lives. My research pursuits encompass the realms of urban ecology, contemporary Asian urbanism, and the conservation of both built and natural resources. In my role as an educator, I actively teach and coordinate urban design and planning studios, embracing an interdisciplinary approach to inspire future designers and planners. In my ongoing exploration of knowledge, I am driven by a commitment to simplicity and a desire for freedom of expression while conscientiously considering the various components of space.