The Mahabat Maqbara Complex is a nationally recognised treasure nestled amidst the vast coastlines of Gujarat. This magnificent architectural marvel serves as a mausoleum, enshrining the tomb of Nawab Sir Muhammad Mahabat Khanji II. Dating back to the 19th century, the complex stood as a prominent and distinguished landmark in Junagadh, Gujarat. Mahabat Khanji commissioned it, and later, in 1892, his successor Bahadur Kanji oversaw the completion of the construction during his reign. The Mahabat Maqbara Complex truly showcases the grandeur and splendour of its era through its remarkable design and craftsmanship.

Mahabat Maqbara, Junagadh, Gujarat - Sheet1
Bauhuddin Maqbara_©gettyimages

The Design Philosophy 

The design philosophy of the Mahabat Maqbara encompasses a harmonious blend of architectural styles and symbolism, reflecting the artistic vision and cultural influences of its time. The mausoleum complex combines Indo-Islamic, Gothic, and European architectural elements, resulting in a unique and awe-inspiring structure.

Mahabat Maqbara, Junagadh, Gujarat - Sheet2
Mahabat Maqbara_©gettyimages

The Indo-Islamic architectural style is prominently featured in the Mahabat Maqbara, showcasing the influence of Islamic traditions and craftsmanship while incorporating elements from the Gothic and European architectural styles, lending it a distinct character. Elements such as intricate arches, delicate minarets, and ornate calligraphy adorn the exterior, adding an elegant touch to the overall design. As geometric patterns and symmetrical layouts exemplified the Indo-Islamic influence, the elaborate carvings, pointed arches, and spires reminiscent of Gothic architecture created a captivating juxtaposition with the Islamic elements. The Mahabat Maqbara carries profound symbolism and spiritual significance to this day, and the ornate embellishments and intricate detailing symbolise opulence and serve as a means to honour the departed soul. The mausoleum’s design philosophy incorporated the local craftsmen’s rich artistic traditions. Skilled artisans contributed their expertise in stonework, carving, and intricate detailing, ensuring that the monument truly reflected the region’s cultural heritage. Nevertheless, it extended beyond the architectural elements and encompassed the serene surroundings of the complex.

Materials and Construction

Mahabat Maqbara was built using a wide variety of materials and with amazing skill, demonstrating the height of architecture at the time. The mausoleum complex is a testament to the creativity and craftsmanship of the artisans and craftsmen who worked on its construction. The elaborate designs were brought to life by their meticulous artistry in moulding, chiselling, and cutting the stone and marble materials. The complex’s massive onion-domed arches, passageways, and other structural features were the result of careful planning and construction.

Mahabat Maqbara, Junagadh, Gujarat - Sheet3
The mausoleum is a fusion of Indo-Islamic, Gothic and European architecture_©gettyimages

To build the Mahabat Maqbara, the stone was the main material. Intricate carvings, arches, and decorative components were made by experienced artisans using local sandstone and limestone. The stone’s resilience and ageless allure led to its longevity. Marble, renowned for its elegance, was also extensively used in the construction. The delicate marble screens, pillars, and decorative motifs adorn the interior and exterior, bestowing a sense of luxury.


The sustainability of Mahabat Maqbara incorporates a range of initiatives aimed at preserving and protecting this cultural heritage site for future generations. Recognizing the significance of sustainable practices in heritage conservation, several measures have been implemented to ensure the long-term sustainability of the Maqbara.

Mahabat Maqbara, Junagadh, Gujarat - Sheet4
One of the four intricately detailed minaret with a winding staircase around it_©gettyimages

The viability of the tomb depends heavily on preservation and restoration initiatives. Knowledgeable conservationists and specialists use traditional repair and restoration methods to preserve the monument’s historical integrity while causing the least environmental damage possible. The preservation work ensures the building will last by employing materials that may be found locally and using conventional building techniques. At Mahabat Maqbara, environmental stewardship is a crucial component of sustainability. The site management focuses on reducing the ecological imprint by implementing waste management strategies, energy-efficient lighting, and water conservation procedures. These initiatives not only lessen the site’s environmental impact but also aid in preserving the local ecosystem.

The local community is also actively involved in preserving and promoting the Maqbara Complex, fostering a sense of ownership and pride. Educational programs, guided tours, and interactive exhibits raise awareness among visitors and locals about the historical and cultural significance of the monument. Furthermore, the Gujarat Tourism Department emphasises the importance of responsible tourism practices to promote sustainability. Visitor management strategies are implemented to regulate footfall and preserve fragile architectural elements. By integrating these sustainable measures, the site ensures the continued enjoyment and understanding of its historical and cultural significance, preserving it as a cherished heritage for future generations.

Mahabat Maqbara, Junagadh, Gujarat - Sheet5
Bird’s eye view of the monument_©gettyimages

The Mahabat Maqbara Complex represents its time’s history, creativity, and spirituality and is more than just a physical building. Its timeless attraction entices us to delve into the complex details and awe at the time-tested craftsmanship. We are taken back in time to a time of richness and reverence as we stroll through its halls and gaze upon its magnificent domes. It encourages us to accept our past, enjoy our variety, and recognise the enduring beauty contained within our architectural wonders. The Mahabat Maqbara Complex serves as a sad reminder of the rich cultural history that needs to be treasured and safeguarded amid our modern society for generations to come, providing an enduring legacy.


  • Anon, (n.d.). Mahabat Maqbara, Mahabat Maqbara India, Mahabat Maqbara Junagadh Gujarat india, Mahabat Maqbara History, Mahabat Maqbara Palace – Travels & History. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Jun. 2023].
  • Mahabat Maqbara, the unsung architectural treasure of Junagadh. (n.d.). The Times of India. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Jun. 2023].
  • (n.d.). Mahabat Maqbara in Gujarat. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Jun. 2023].
  • (n.d.). Mahabat Maqbara, Junagadh Restoration | Savani Heritage Conservation |. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Jun. 2023].

Harvard Citation Style Guidelines

To generate citation, please use:

Harvard citation style is a parenthetical referencing system consisting two main components:

  • In-text citations are an author-date system that includes the author’s surname and the year of publication—both should be shown in brackets wherever another source has contributed to your work/ idea. And, if necessary, the page numbers are included in the parenthetical citations. 

For example: (Joyce, 2008).

  • reference list outlining all of the sources directly cited in your work. 

For adding the references in Harvard Style at the end of your article, paste the URL in any of the following sites:;

And then you can copy-paste the citation generated here in your REFERENCES LIST at the end of your article.

For better understanding, follow through with the points mentioned below:

  1. Books

Citations for books with one author:

Last name, first initial. (Year). Title. Edition (if not the first edition of the book). City of publication: Publisher.

For example:

Davis, B. (2013). A History of Chocolate. Nottingham: Delectable Publications.

Davis, B. (2013). A History of Chocolate. 3rd ed. Nottingham: Delectable Publications.

Citations for books with two or three authors:

Last name, first initial., Last name, first initial., and Last name, first initial. (Year). Title. City of publication: Publisher.

For example:

Jones, F. and Hughes, S. (2006). Eating Out: A Definitive Restaurant Handbook. Nottingham: Delectable Publications.

Citations for books with four or more authors:

Last name, first initial., Last name, first initial., Last name, first initial., and Last name, first initial. (Year). Title. City of publication: Publisher.

For example:

James, P., Croft, D., Levin, S. and Doe, A. (1998). How to Succeed in the Restaurant Industry. Nottingham: Delectable Publications.

  1. Articles

Citations for Print Journals:

Last name, First initial. (Year). Article Title. Journal name, Volume (Issue), Page/s.

For example:

Jenkins, O. (1996). Unusual Recipes and Cantonese Cuisine. Culinary Research, Volume 5 (8), pp. 47-59.

Citations for Journal Articles accessed on a website or database:

Last name, First initial. (Year). Article Title. Journal name, Volume (Issue), Page/s. Available from: URL. [Accessed: date].

For example:

Jenkins, O. (1996). Unusual Recipes and Cantonese Cuisine. Culinary Research, Volume 5 (8), pp. 47-59. Available at: [Accessed: 5 June 2016].

Citations for Newspaper Articles – Print or Online: 

Last name, First initial. (Year). Article title. Newspaper name, Page/s.

Last name, First initial. (Year). Article Title. Newspaper name, Page/s. Retrieved from: Journal name/ URL if freely available.

For example:

Bell, Y. (2016). Man with unusual tastes eats chalk for breakfast. The Weekly Herald, p. 4.

Lees, P. (2015). Freaky eaters. The Weekly Herald, p.21. Available at: [Accessed 21 June 2016].

Citations for Magazine Articles – Print or Online:

Last name, First initial. (Year). Article title. Magazine name, volume number, Page/s.

Last name, First initial. (Year, Month Day). Article Title. Magazine name, [online] Page/s. Retrieved from: URL

For example:

Ilkes, J. (2006). Five Ways to Eat More Fruit and Vegetables. Healthy Lifestyles, (12), pp. 34-36.

Ilkes, J. (2009, September 20). Why Dried Fruit is a Diet Staple. Healthy Lifestyles. Retrieved from:

  1. Online sources

Citations for websites:

Author/Source if no specific author (Year). Title of web document/page. [online]. (Last updated: if this information is available). Available at: URL [Accessed date: Day/Month/Year].

For example:

HealthTips (2015). Superfoods and where to find them. [online]. (Last updated 20 May 2015). Available at: [Accessed 20 June 2016].

Citations for emails:

Sender’s last name, First initial. (Year). Subject Line of Email. [email].

For example:

James, D. (2016). New business plan for McDowells. [email].

Citations for Social Media:

Last name of author, First initial. (Year). Title of page [Social media format]. Day/month/year written. Available from: URL. [Accessed: Day/Month/Year].

For example:

Proud, F. (2014). Food lovers group [Facebook]. Written 5 June 2014. Available from: [Accessed 25 September 2016].

  1. Images/visual mediums

Citations for films/videos/DVDs:

Full Title of Film/Video/DVD. Year of release. [Type of medium]. Director. Country of Origin: Film studio or maker. (Any other relevant details).

For example:

The World’s Best Curries. (2011). [Film]. Directed by J. Hertz. U.K: Foodie Studios.

Citations for YouTube videos:

Username of contributor. (Year). Video Title, Series Title (if relevant). [type of medium]. Available at: URL. [Accessed: Day/ Month/ Year].

For example:

Yummydishes. (2012). Egg custard – simple recipe!, Baking 101. [YouTube video]. Available at: [Accessed 13 June 2016].

Citations for broadcasts:

Series title and episode name/number. (Year). [Year of broadcast]. Broadcasting organisation and channel, date and time of transmission.

For example:

World Kitchen: Nigeria, episode 5. (2011). [Broadcast 2011]. BBC 1, first transmitted 30 July 2011, 20:00.

Citations for images/photographs – Print or Online:

Last name of artist/photographer, first initial (if known). (Year of production). Title of image. [type of medium] (Collection Details if available – Document number, Geographical place: Name of library/archive/repository).

For example:

Hewer, D. (1995). Women enjoying a cup of tea. [Photograph]. (Document number 345, London: Food Photography Library).

Citations for maps:

Map maker’s name. (Year of issue). Title of map. Map series, sheet number, scale. Place of publication: publisher.

For example:

SpeedyQuest maps. (2003). Map of Biddiford. Local Maps, sheet 5, scale 1:50000. Nottingham: Local Publications.

Citations for podcasts:

Broadcaster/author’s name. (Year). Programme title, series title (if relevant). [type of medium] date of transmission. Available at: URL [Accessed date: Day/Month/Year].

For example:

Yummydishes. (2015). Innovative Baking, Innovative Food. [Podcast]. Transmitted 16 October 2015. Available at: [Accessed: 17 April 2016].

  1. Other source types

Citations for reports:

Organisation/author. (Year). Full title of report. Place of publication: Publisher.

For example:

Marks and Spencers. (2014). A report on the sales of ‘2 Dine for £10’. London: M&S Publications.

Citations for dissertations:

Last name of author, first initial. (Year). Title of dissertation. Level. Official name of university.

For example:

Neath, G. (1998). An examination of Mexican food in popular culture. Masters level. Oxford Brookes University.

Citations for interviews:

Last name of interviewer, first initial, and last name of interviewee, first initial. (Year). Title/description of interview.

For example:

Ferman, H. and Bill, O. (2004). Discussing cooking.

Citations for presentations/lectures:

Last name of author, first initial. (Year). Presentation/lecture title.

For example:

Yates, R. (2008). The benefits of herbs.

Citations for music:

Performer/writer’s last name, first initial. (Year). Recording title. [Medium]. City published: music label.

For example:

Luce, F. (1996). Delicious. [CD Recording]. Nottingham: Delectable Music.

Citations for computer programs/software:

Name of software/program. (Year). Place/city where software was written: Company/publisher.

For example:

RecipeGen. (2008). Nottingham: Delectable Software.


Mayusha is a student of architecture, hailing from Kerala.With a deep appreciation for the art of architecture and a love for storytelling she wishes to bridge the gap between the technical aspects of architecture and the power of the written word.