Natural light plays a very important role in our day to day life, as it provides great comfort, health, and a mood for a human being. In architecture providing a good amount of light is an integral part of our design which gives an added value. Sometimes, the main focus would be on the most effective means to reduce the overall capital expenditure and the best way to do so is by making future buildings as sustainable as possible. which helps in saving the energy used in a particular place or so. All come in different ways which are architecturally classified.
Based on the diffused and uniform light which comes from large openings for example a large window at a certain place which allows a good amount of light into space.
Direct light entering into a certain place is all about how a certain space is designed in such a way that allows a good amount of light.
An overhead light is such a trend where the windows provided on the sides don’t allow a good amount of light but when it comes to providing a skylight or an opening on top would let in a good amount of light as there is direct sunlight hitting on to the roof.
- People these days also follow the reflecting process where the light gets reflected into certain spaces which are slightly darker compared to the other rooms.
Another thing which plays a very important role is the orientation of the building about the sun. Which is one of the most influential factors is the orientation of the building concerning the sun. It helps with the visual comfort of the rooms but improves the energy efficiency of the rooms. To take the most of the sunlight and the main focus must be on the common spaces which are used and accessed by everyone. For example, being a living room service, stairs the others could be placed accordingly.
The location and size of the windows usually play a very important role as the windows are huge then the ventilation and the lighting of the window will automatically tend to play a role with a good amount of light inside. These mostly affect the area like the staircase providing windows on the sides instead of providing them as a skylight would act as a reflecting surface at the same time.
Seasons which are another most important thing which plays a very important role in daylighting. As we know that in winter the sun is around 22 degrees and in summer around 68 degrees which makes the sun lower during the winters compared to the summers.
For example, a window which is placed in the center of the wall in summers the direct light coming into a certain room is less so, they tend to leave a shade. But, during the winters they create a space that keeps the surrounding warm. This depends on how we use the space and where exactly the opening is given.
Clearance around the building seems very to enjoy the beauty where there is some sort of obstruction around that wouldn’t allow the light to enter directly so keeping the surrounding clear will help in allowing a good amount of natural light coming inside. In urban areas or forests, the availability of light will be difficult, therefore we need to imagine before we do something or plan something architecturally. If it’s the countryside or a clearing, it will be easier to work with the building based on the environment.
The best example that comes into my mind when I think about natural lighting is the Notre-Dame du Haut Chapel, in Ronchamp in France, by Le Corbusier, built-in 1955.
His play of lights through a stained glass around the entire structure makes it different from the others. The interior spaces left between the walls and roof are filled with clerestory windows and asymmetrical light from the wall openings. The lighting in the interior is soft and indirect. Since the glasses are stained the light would be reflected even during the night.
Another example is Villa Savoye, Paris where natural light is used to differentiate the spaces (public and private spaces). Le Corbusier’s followed the 5 points of architecture were in each of it had a meaning to it
- Pilotis- use of pilotis was to elevate the building from the earth allowing good views and light into space
- Roof- functional roof serving as a garden and terrace which provides natural ventilation into space.
- A free floor plan- load-bearing walls, freely placed walls only where aesthetically needed.
- Horizontal windows- long horizontal windows that allow a good amount of ventilation and natural light.
- Freely designed facades- It acts like skin to all the windows. https://www.google.com