Low-Cost Housing is a concept which deals with efficient budgeting and the following methods which help in decreasing the cost of construction through the usage of locally available materials along with upgraded skills and technology. There is a huge misunderstanding that low-cost housing is suitable for only low-income groups and they are built by using cheap construction materials. The truth is that Low-cost housing is achieved by proper administration of means. The economy is also obtained by completing the projects in phases.
India is facing a constant major difficulty due to the ever-increasing population of the country. India has the majority of lower-income groups, and today lower middle class can’t even afford their own house because of high construction costs. Such families save money all their lives and take loans so that they can buy their own house.
Here, you will discover 10 low-cost housing projects in India by using sustainable architectural measures. The methods and techniques incorporated have proven to be successful in reducing the negative environmental results of buildings by moderation through efficiency in the use of energy, materials, and the ecosystem at large.
1. Aranya Community Housing, Indore, India
Aranya housing is designed by Architect Balkrishna V. Doshi. This housing settlement is 6 km from the city center. Aranya Housing that spreads in 85 hectares with 6500 houses for 60,000 people, was completed in 1989 with 1, 00,000 Sq.m of built-up areas. The concept of design is to facilitate social interaction. There are six sectors connected by a central spine. Toilets, water connections, drainage system are providing in each house. An open staircase is provided along. This innovative sites-and-services project is remarkable for its effort to unite families within a range of poor-to-decent incomes. The bright color façades show the colors of India. Ar. B.V. Doshi was awarded the Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 1996 for Aranya Housing.
2. Incremental Housing, Belapur, Navi Mumbai, India
Architect Charles Correa designed a perfect solution for affordable housing in Mumbai just 2 km from the city center. Housing is developed in 5.4 hectors for 550 families. Completed in 1986, housing is design in clusters of seven houses grouped together by an 8×8 meter courtyard with no single sharing-wall in housing. A well-planned hierarchy of interlocking and open to sky spaces provides a smart and affordable housing solution with all amenities that everyone can afford.
3. ATIRA Staff Housing, Ahmadabad, India
ATIRA housing is designed by Architect Balkrishna V. Doshi in 1957, for labors of textile industries in Ahmedabad. Designed series of roof brick arches offer this housing an incredible look. It is aligned north-south for less sun exposure. On the front and back of the houses, arches are extended to create verandah-like spaces. During summers, people use the verandah with a front-garden, to sleep.
Single room houses have movable partitions. Every house has a backyard with a toilet. All toilets are strategically placed for easy drainage.
4. CIDCO Housing, Parsik Hill, Belapur, India
CIDCO housing, at Parsik Hill, is designed by Architect Raj Rewal. This housing settlement of 9 hectares with 1000 units was developed in 1998. Because of the topography of the site, every block has a different shape and size. One and two-room units are designed in 20 to 100 sq.m area. A network of courtyards creates the desired micro-climate in housing. Roughcast plaster and handmaid tiles are cost-effective solutions with stone walls at ground level and honeycomb lattice on the roof for privacy.
5. LIC Housing, Ahmadabad, India
LIC Housing is known as Bhima Nagar, designed by Architect Balkrishna V. Doshi, completed in 1976. Housing is developed in 4 hectares, with 327 units. This particular Housing houses three income groups. The building is pyramidal in shape with three-stories. Housing has duplex flats with terraces. It is cost-efficient with central sharing staircases and terraces.
6. Tara Housing, Delhi, India
Tara housing designed by Architect Charles Correa was constructed in 1978. Tara Housing is developed in 1.48 hectares, housing more than 125 units for middle-class families. Two and three-bedroom apartments are planned around a central courtyard, creating an attractive inner environment. Only pedestrian entries are allowed on the premises.
Parking lots are at the back of the housing. Every house has its own open terrace garden. The hanging portion creates barriers form the sun so, thereby creating shaded areas.
7. Chengalchoola Housing, Trivandrum, India
Chengalchoola housing is designed by Architect Laurie Baker, who is also known as the architect of the poor. This housing design is for the Kerala Housing State Board with over 700 dwelling units for lower-income groups.
Chengalchoola Housing has a proper internal road, drainage, and water supply network, providing every house with basic amenities. The main attraction of this housing is exposed brick walls which are cost-effective and energy-efficient.
8. Sheikh Sarai Housing Complex, New Delhi
Sheikh Sarai housing is the first experimental project of low-cost housing by the Architect Raj Rewal. Built-in 1982, it was developed in 35 acres with 550 units ranging from one to four-bedroom flat having 70 to 120 sq.m area. Grit Sandstone provides a facade that provides an elite look. This Housing has a garden in the center, running like a spine along with the network of narrow attractive streets.
9. HUDCO Courtyard Housing, Jodhpur, India
The HUDCO housing project designed by Architect Charles Correa was completed in 1986. Housing is designed for lower to mid-level income groups. Using the basic principle of architecture based on incremental housing of Belapur, with no shared walls. 176 Houses were later added by the Architect Charles Correa to these impressive developments. Local stone is used for construction. The load-bearing walls and flat roofs are traditionally constructed. Every house has its own enclosed courtyard because of Rajasthan’s hot and dry climate, to ensure comfort.
10. IFFCO Township, Kalol, Gujrat, India
This housing is a part of the development of the Indian Farmers Fertilizer Co-operative Ltd. Developed in 21 hectares, it was built-in 1973, designed by the celebrated architect Balkrishna Doshi for different economical groups. There is compact residence planning with external common staircases and terraces covered with pergolas, which can be later used as storage. The project highlights rainwater harvesting, stormwater management, and biochemical waste disposal.