Architecture has the power to change the world; the power to give a form to the future, where it takes leaps and new wild forms in the future. Over the years, Architecture has always been shaping mankind through cultural, religious, and political aspects as every marvel makes an appearance, expanding the architectural community. Architectural technology paves the way for succeeding generations to survive. At its roots, famous buildings and its famous architecture represent how our future sees us and as well as the world. But, do we commend the masterminds behind those marvels? This blog post is all about architectural marvels around the world and the masterminds behind them.
1. Beijing Daxing International Airport – Zaha Hadid | Famous Buildings
Developed to lighten the congestion at the capital’s first airport, Beijing‘s second international airport was constructed in 2019 replacing Istanbul as the world’s largest transport hub for the region amidst the world’s fastest-growing demand for the foreign transport system. The structure is known for its sinuous form as ‘the starfish’, its sprawling star shape spans 7.5 million square feet. Originally the airport was serving 45 million passengers per year, and it is planned that it will accommodate 75 million passengers by 2025 and further expansion to make room for 100 million passengers and 4 million tons of cargo annually.
2. La Sargada Familia – Antonio Gaudi
One of Barcelona‘s most famous landmarks, La Sagrada Familia, a cathedral that began in 1882, which was built more than a century ago by Antonio Gaudi 1883 the chief architect of the project, till his death in 1926. The cathedral employs three-dimensional forms containing ruled surfaces, including hyperboloids, parabolas, helicoids, and conoids, were emphasizing the cathedral’s acoustics and quality of light.
The design follows Catalan modernism intricate in each element by Gaudi, though he retained the typical Latin cross plan and features of a gothic cathedral from its foregoing design. Primarily, Flying buttresses were replaced by Angular columns and Hyperboloid vaults, eliminating gothic features in several ways.
Literal symbolism is immersed in each aspect of La Sagrada Familia as they possess Christianity beliefs in three facades; the nativity façade facing East, The Glory façade facing West, and The Passion façade facing north. The Nativity façade was done with smooth, intricate corbelling overseen by Gaudi himself. After his death, the passion façade and Glory façade was taken over by Josep Maria Subirachis, who introduced modernism techniques to the cathedral’s design principles.
3. Salk Institute – Louis Kahn | Famous Architecture
The Salk Institute was established by Jonas Salk in the year 1960, where Salk intended to approach Louis Kahn to design a biological research facility exploring the connotations of the sciences of humanity.
The institute was praised for its prominent aesthetics and functionality, creating a welcoming, minimalistic and inspiring environment for the researchers to work in. Kahn’s impact on the facility lies in the unobstructed laboratory spaces housed on two structures – identical to each other, each six-story tall, bounding the travertine courtyard.
The laboratories were, by design, easily upgraded, and flooded with natural light with the impact of the courtyard as they possess double glass panels, imposing an open airy environment. Two floors have been sunk underground owing to the local building codes, which did not cease the design from its lofty requirements; a series of light wells measuring 40 feet long and 25 feet wide on each side of the building for daylighting even at the lowest level of the building.
4. Indian Institute of Management – Louis Kahn
It would be unconvincing not to speak of Ahmedabad Indian Institute of Management, One of Louis Kahn’s finest creations. It was renowned Indian architect BV Doshi who approached Louis Kahn to design the 60-acre campus of IIM, Ahmedabad. Kahn’s mastermind for the design of the institute was more than fulfilling the spatial requirements nonetheless the educational infrastructure as the primary concern.
The institute was a personification of modern architecture retaining traditional technologies to enhance the culture enamored with tradition in its context. The façade of the institute is its attribute as the cut-outs as abstract patterns function as extractions paying homage to Indian vernacular architecture. It also flaunts the light wells acting as a natural cooling system for the harsh arid context.
5. Seagram Building – Mies van der Rohe | Famous Buildings
Seagram Building, the epitome of modernism, in the heart of New York City was the first attempt at tall building construction of 515 feet high by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Mies’s reciprocation towards the building’s design principles was against the odds. Creating an open active plaza, imposing a setback of 100 feet from the street edge, the architect has set his ideologies apart from the New York urban morphology, the conventional practice of skyscraper construction.
The structure was embellished with a progression of bronze and dark glass, hitting a contrast on the concrete show of the plaza. The façade was fabricated with metal bronze skin and was amorphous yet gives a defined perspective of the structure beneath, along with other vertical elements, compelling a visual expression of the building.
6. Copen hill Energy plant – Bjarke Ingles
Copen Hill, also known as Amager Bakke has turned into an architectural landmark, as it has become an abode of a Waste-to-energy plant surmounted on the ski slope, a hiking trail to make Copenhagen, the world’s first carbon-neutral city by 2025. The plant has become an exemplary module as a waste management and energy production facility.
The design focuses on the reclamation of an unused invisible building to the public into a public infrastructure through a nature-filled program. The 4,10,00,000 Sqm project includes the urban recreational hub, and environment education imposing “Hedonistic Sustainability” and it was Bjarke Ingles who introduced the concept. The signature park and ski slopes on the rooftop cap the plant as a landmark. The rooftop will allow the visitors to use hiking trails, fitness structures, playgrounds, and views of the city. Beneath the slopes, lies the plant converting 44000 tons of waste from the city into energy.
7. Le Grand Louver – I.M.Pei
The Louvre museum is still considered to be an iconic artwork as the one it houses inside. During the renovation campaign at cultural institutions in France, I.M.Pei, a Chinese – American architect was assigned for the renovations of the museum, the first foreign architect to work on the Louvre museum. To avoid congestion, the main court was redesigned with a central convenient lobby separating the galleries. Addition and relocation of galleries and exhibits underground aids in the expansion of the lobby of the Louvre museum.
Pei’s addition of the steel and glass pyramid to the Louvre was a symbolic entry to the historical ancient monument, imposing Pei’s architectural mastermind into this cultural significance.
8. The Glass House – Philip Johnson | Famous Architecture
Glass House by Philip Johnson was considered to be a prominent work of modern architecture with its coherence inspired by Farnsworth House by Mies van der rohe. Nonetheless, it did not impress Mies, and it was stated that the latter stormed out as the design lacked interpretation of details.
The house is the primary attraction of the site and measures about 32′ x 56′ enclosed in 18′ wide long glass from floor to ceiling. The clear glass creates lively reflections and interactions between the interior and exterior except for the cylindrical brick structure at one end of the house. The site has incorporated thirteen more structures including the art gallery, sculpture pavilion, and guest house.
9. The Shard – Renzo Piano
Renzo Piano’s “The Shard” is an approach to exploring the urban landscape, being the tallest building in Western Europe, and a welcomed addition to London’s Skyline. The tower is a mixed-use skyscraper, with architecturally striking features including offices, apartments, retail areas, restaurants, and a spa.
The skyscraper was planned as a “vertical city“, maximizing the spatial functionality, to address the growing population of the city. Public enclosures are at ground level creating a plaza with restaurants and cafés. The upper floors showcase office spaces with vertically inclined green pockets, hotel rooms, and luxury apartments with prepossessing views.
10. Guggenheim Museum – Frank Lloyd Wright | Famous Buildings
The Guggenheim Museum is one of the most popular and last major projects of Frank Lloyd Wright. The organic curves of the museum give a striking contrast to the rigid context, making it an architectural identity. Wright proposed that “one great space on a continuous floor” was achieved throughout the building, where the curves at the exterior created a stunning impact even on the interiors. The designs as the floors are connected through ramps running spirally along, with a high atrium at 92′ in height to an expensive glass dome.
Although these organic curves are the attributes of the museum, they were not successful in terms of practicality and did not satisfy Manhattan’s building codes or structural technicalities.