Due to increased global warming, there is a rise in outside temperature. But, the heat affects the environment inside the buildings as well. In the present scenario, all the modern buildings are equipped with a good HVAC (Heat, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system technology. There are also other methods to prevent the building from heat, such as façade treatment, effective design and layout of the building and usage of correct insulation materials for the heat absorption. Climate control in buildings means maintaining the ecosystem of the building with multifaceted characteristics. Since HVAC is not always affordable, it is suggested to do more and more plantations and use mini-systems based on solar panels so that it improves the air quality.

Methods of climate control 

There are two types of methods to control climate. One is through technology, and the other is through construction and architectural design patterns.

Climate control through technology 

Since technology has reached different heights and every day there are new inventions taking place to develop society and fulfill its requirements, there are many ways to control the climate according to modern buildings and human comfort. Here are some of them listed below.

1.Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence 

How can Climate be controlled in modern buildings? - Sheet1
Internet of Things_ https://miro.medium.com/max/1400/1*92OdlxNqI3iChI5kNl1MFg.jpeg

This technology examines the energy efficiency and thermal ease of the building efficiently. The indoor environment has all kinds of detectors and sensors that track and alert the conditions of the day. It helps to decrease carbon footprints and energy. The amount of heat produced is decreased, and the insulation system is protected. In addition to this, the televisions, compressors and ACs emit so much heat. Artificial Intelligence eliminates heat formation and reduces energy loss by up to 20 %. It moderates the ambient humidity and tracks the entire system as well. ICT based operations are carried out using wireless sensor technology.

2. Cloud computing, DEVap and green technology 

How can Climate be controlled in modern buildings? - Sheet2
Technology at best _ https://www.denso.com/global/en/products-and-services/Agriculture/climate-control-system-for-greenhouse/images/pc/outline/dnspf_pc_gaiyo1.png

Cloud computing technology is less expensive compared to the previously mentioned technology. It provides more privacy and has a decent software structure. It completely helps in decarbonization. Desiccant – Enhanced Evaporative) energy renewable technology is very cost-effective, provided with a range of controllers that are non-hazardous. Green technology concentrates on maintaining the inner temperature concerning the outer temperature. It consumes less energy and is cost-effective; for example, there is hot water circulation in winter. Power generation is developed through wind turbines, and air filtration systems are set up.

Construction methods for climate control 

How can Climate be controlled in modern buildings? - Sheet3
Reflective roof coating _ https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/p/AF1QipOUUvsOa0QbEqt8W36d6aDoH-apXfbKfzxVNQ2p=w1080-h608-p-no-v0

The lush greens have always been beneficial to humans. They reduce carbon emissions. The more you plant the trees, it’s also visually soothing and is used as mental therapy. The greenery decreases the temperature of the building by 1 to 5 degrees Celsius. It purifies the air by 87 %. The trees do their cooling through a natural process, that is, transpiration cooling. Thus, it is advisable to plant more trees so that the balance is created naturally in the climate of modern buildings.

Despite the upcoming technology every day, there are more passive methods used to control the climate. One of them is some of the construction methods that can be used to maintain the ecosystem. Several building materials are used, and new construction methods are invented day by day. There are advanced insulation techniques so that users don’t experience extreme heat or extreme cold. There are various reflective roof coatings done to shield the sun’s rays. The coatings can also be helpful as they obstruct UV rays and infrared rays. These radiations, even if they are not visible, are well absorbed by the coatings and even in winters. There are Phase Changing Materials (PCM), which decrease the emission of carbon dioxide and maintain the temperatures. There are heat pipes used to heat and cool the buildings. It is also one of the greenhouse technologies.     

Architecture and design patterns to control climate

How can Climate be controlled in modern buildings? - Sheet4
Passive design strategies _ https://archi-monarch.com/introduction-of-passive-design/

To maintain the ecosystem of a building and comfort, it is the best option to design it very accurately using sustainable methods of construction. Sustainable methods can be like using local materials and favouring vernacular architecture. The orientation of the building is very important and should be kept relative to prevailing winds and sun. There are verandahs in each house and proper ridge vents so that the heat is reduced and allows cross ventilation in the structure. As mentioned, vernacular architecture is one of the most effective practices to be made. The construction amount is quite cheap and also provides suitable thermal comfort. It controls the original climate of the building, creating a unique shape and space. Then there is bioclimatic design, which means the construction is carried out according to the local climate. It is a mixture of biology and climate. There are structural materials used, such as lightweight walls. Lightweight walls are used in humid tropical areas, and thick walls are used in arid tropical areas. Other methods practised are shading architecture which is a hybrid of solar screening and passive solar system. Wind catchers are used as well for direct ventilation of the building. The heat is decreased and maintains a passive environment.  

Plantations 

Use of trees _ https://images.squarespace-cdn.com/content/v1/5b51df5812b13fce46a6868b/1597537447674-0NWQTQ4L1RHYNKVI4JIN/image-asset.jpeg?format=1000w

The lush greens have always been beneficial to humans. They reduce carbon emissions. The more you plant the trees, it’s also visually soothing and is used as mental therapy. The greenery decreases the temperature of the building by 1 to 5 degrees Celsius. It purifies the air by 87 %. The trees do their cooling through a natural process, that is, transpiration cooling. Thus, it is advisable to plant more trees so that the balance is created naturally in the climate of modern buildings.

References

  1. https://medium.com/@zebalikhan64/climate-control-in-buildings-19381b6a397
  2. https://chinapreservationtutorial.library.cornell.edu/content/passive-climate-control
Author

A young architect, and a keen learner who would love to experiment with the intricacy of architecture as per changing environment and the functioning of the society, keeping in mind the sustainability factor and history of the respective place or building.

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