Communism collapsed in Albania around 1991. Before, the country lived in severe isolation even from other socialist countries, a situation comparable to the disconnection of North Korea today. The violence during the regime found an equally violent counterpart in the way the country opened up to a so-called ‘free market regime’, which was in reality a destructive mix of pyramid schemes, widespread corruption and anarchy. Also the urban environment suffered from this, being victim to cancerous illegal settlements. People were building everywhere: on rooftops, in courtyards, parks and riverbeds.

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Project name: TID Tower
Architecture Firm: 51N4E
Instagram: 51N4E
Completion Year: 2016
Gross Built Area: 46.000 m²
Project location: Tirana, AL
Photo credits: Filip Dujardin, Stefano Graziani
Photographer’s website: ,
Lead Architects: 51N4E
Design Team: Johan Anrys, Freek Persyn, Peter Swinnen, Ulrike Franzel, Bob De Wispelaere, Jeroen Beerten, Joost Körver, Aglaia De Mulder, Chris Blackbee, Astrid Vranovci, Joram Van Den Brande, Tom Baelus, Konstantinos Pantazis, Aline Neirynck, Karol Wawrsyniak, Andreas Anton Amodio, Jan Das, Valbona Koçi, Marian Beschoner, Sotiria Kornaropoulou, Marta Petrov, Olivier Cavens, Galaad Van Daele, Guillaume Boulanger
Clients: Tirana International Development
Consultants: Ney & partners (structure), Cenergie (climatecontrol)
Engineering: Helidon Kokona
Façade : Van Santen & associates
Construction: Tirana International Development

TID TOWER By 51N4E - Sheet1As a reaction, the former mayor Edi Rama came up with a series of operations, designed to bring the idea of the city as a collective space back in the hearts and minds of the people. The first wave was an emergency operation: in the year 2000 an ‘urban guerilla’ started, combining the destruction of buildings with the painting of facades in strong, ‘larger than life’ colors. The second wave in 2003 was more organized and planning oriented: it crystallized in a master plan for a pedestrianized center, marked at the edges with 2 parallel (and monumental) rows of towers. The TID tower is one of them, and until today one out of two that are built.

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TID TOWER By 51N4E - Sheet3The site for the tower qualifies as a prime location: it can be seen from the main boulevard entering the city. Seen from that angle, the tower complements the most important monuments of Tirana: the Skanderbeg statue, the oldest mosque, the clock tower and —at the foot of the tower- a memorial tomb for the city’s founder Suleiman Pasha. Being aware of this precarious historical line-up, the tower is designed as a monolith, avoiding the image of the modem glass tower. Starting from an ellipse and ending as a rectangle, the building has a simple shape which fully captures the Mediterranean light of Tirana and generates a wide range of unexpected shadows. It does not symbolize anything but instead highlights an environmental —and as such, cultural- condition. On the ground floor. the building is designed as a constellation of 3 singular buildings: the tower of 85 m height coming straight down to the ground, its circular base freeing up public space; a 5 storey glass building with a cantilevering roof that creates an open air galleria; and finally, a small concrete building with a hollowed out quarter dome, embracing the tomb of Suleiman Pasha. Together, these buildings generate a multiple and diverse environment, enhancing the most durable quality of any Mediterranean city: its public space.

TID TOWER By 51N4E - Sheet5The building and base are very specific in the way they shape the outside space, while they are designed to be program-neutral on the inside: the generic layout of the floors and the rough skin of the tower (50% open – 50% closed) allow to accommodate any program. The whole structure is straightforward and robust. The construction process consisted in getting rid of badly copied intemational building solutions and replacing them with new solutions with the proper amount of manageable precision. It meant that we —together with the client- had to find and create local capabilities, resulting in an unexpected range of high quality but low-tech solutions. During this process, we produced knowledge and opportunities at once, driven by our shared ambition to make the most out of Albania’s physical and human resources.


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51N4E is a Brussels-based international practice that concerns itself with matters of architectural design, concept development and strategic spatial transformations. It is led by 2 partners – Johan Anrys and Freek Persyn – and is at present 22 people strong.

The office was founded in 1998 and gained renown through key projects such as Lamot (2005), TID Tower Tirana (2004- ), C-Mine (2010), Skanderbeg Square (2008) and BUDA factory (2012).

51N4E has been rewarded with different international prizes for the architectural projects, while it has recently engaged in the development of strategic visions for large-scale urban regions such as Bordeaux (50.000 dwellings), Brussels (Bruxelles Metropôle 2040) and Istanbul (Making City).

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51N4E aspires to contribute, through means of design, to social and urban transformation.


Rethinking The Future (RTF) is a Global Platform for Architecture and Design. RTF through more than 100 countries around the world provides an interactive platform of highest standard acknowledging the projects among creative and influential industry professionals.

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Rethinking The Future Awards 2022