The shelter is one of the most basic needs for human development. when the material used tends to be expensive automatically the price paid for the construction also tends to get expensive. Nowadays development focuses on cost-effective construction by using various alternatives building materials and technologies.
1. LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER
LVL provides a consistent, high-performance alternative to solid lumber structural systems. It is lighter and stronger than traditional alternatives, faster and easier to install, enhances productivity, and reduces forming costs. They are in composite nature, it is much less likely to warp, twist, bow, or shrink.
2. AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE
AAC is a lightweight, precast, foam concrete building material suitable for producing concrete masonry units like blocks. It has improved thermal efficiency superior fire resistance. It also helps to reduce the solid waste during the use, it’s lightweight and larger. Excellent material for soundproofing and acoustic insulation.
During this lockdown, people have changed their perspective on how various materials can be used in different ways. Vikram Dhawan and his brother, who runs a cardboard products factory in Rajasthan. They also wanted to see how their business could help with this crisis, so they hit upon the idea of inexpensive, recyclable beds from cardboard coated with a protective waterproof substance that enables it to be cleaned quickly and easily. It’s strong and weighs up to 300kg, yet lightweight to lift.
4. LIGHT TRANSMIT CONCRETE
These are materials that help in transmitting light which acts as a translucent material. It transmits light to about 20m thickness. This could be used in giving natural light. It’s a combination of fiber optics and concrete. They harm the high compressive strength of concrete. The blocks can also include embedded heat-isolation.
5. SELF-HEALING CONCRETE
Concrete can withstand compressive forces very well but not tensile forces. It’s a bio-concrete, created just like regular concrete, but with extra ‘healing agents’ mixed in. The healing bacteria would be intact throughout mixing and in case of cracks the water seeps in and dissolves and activates biological limestone to heal the cracks eventually.
This material is known from the Asian times and was mainly used in rural areas. Now, its use in different areas but especially areas which are earthquake-prone as they have great strength and also is fire resistant. Before choosing a bamboo it’s very important to treat it with a good amount of chemicals so it is prevented from termites.
7. STRAW ROOFING
It’s a material which has been used since ancient times. They are easily available, lightweight which makes it easy to transport. They absorb heat easily as it minimizes the heat loss and provides a pleasant indoor climate. This material also reduces labor costs.
8. NATURAL STONE
As we all know a man-made product such as a cast of stone and concrete is readily available, but natural stone is a completely natural product that has been extracted from the ground and is processed. They aren’t just used in the facades of the building but also slabs for kitchen, storage spaces, etc. they are excellent insulators. Once invested it will last forever.
9. CORRUGATED IRON
They are relatively lightweight, portable, and adaptable that is used as a traditional form of construction. They are frequently used in the roofing system, for the walls and the prefabricated buildings especially. All metals corrode but, here the main aim was to slow down the process. It is one of the cheapest and the lightest material to transport.
It is a natural material, which makes it readily available and is economically feasible. This provides good insulation from the cold, they can be fabricated into different shapes and sizes. It is environmentally friendly which makes it sustainable.
It’s bio-composite material, a mixture of hemp hulls and lime, sand which is used in construction and insulations. They lack in brittleness compared to concrete and consequently do not need expansion joints.
12. RAMMED EARTH
It’s a Chinese technique of constructing walls, foundations, floors, etc. It’s a sustainable building method. It adapts easily to all the local climate; they usually generate very little waste. They are lightweight and can be easily transported, and also have a low manufacturing impact.
13. PREFABRICATED PANELS
It is a structure which has been fabricated at the offsite location. They are usually constructed as a column, beam, slab, or just as panels. They are easily available and easy to transport as they are lightweight. They could locally adapt to any climate.
14. ALGAE CURTAINS
It’s a modern-day construction where our planet is soon going to run out of renewable energy. It is a sustainable building material that helps in cleaning the air and absorbs the carbon dioxide and the pollutants present in the air. It also helps with the façade of the building.
15. GLASS FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE
It’s a composite material produced by a cementitious matrix with alkali-resistant glass fiber. It can be molded into different shapes and sizes which helps in the making of futuristic designs. It has great strength and is also lightweight.
16. CONCRETE SHEETS
These sheets are readily available in the market so it’s very quick to install. It’s a stylish option in making the façade pleasing. They are durable, weatherproofing quality, and fireproof. They are usually secure and stable.
17. STONE CLADDING
These are options which are opted when the client wants a pleasing look but at the same time has a budget. It can be rustic or modern and can mimic different types of stone finishes. It comes in different thicknesses.
18. RECLAIMED TIMBER
They are one of the cheapest materials but at the same time trendy as well. They are more durable and dried out. They are also environmentally friendly. Each shape is unique and irregular in shape.
19. TRADITIONAL BRICK
They are popular as they last longer. It is fireproof and also stands down to any weather condition. They are available in different sizes. They are durable and sturdy. They also make the place look aesthetically pleasing.
20. WASTE MATERIALS
Creative builders use everything starting from the cigarette butts to plastic bottles and rubble to build in homes. They have tried and incorporated various other waste materials which can be developed eventually with technologies.