The industrial revolution which began around 1760 in England, led to enormous changes at each and every level of civilization throughout the world. The growth of heavy industrial material brought more new building materials which are cast iron, steel, and glass with which architects and engineers rearranged the concept of function, size, and form due to the impact of industrial revolution.
The disenchantment with Baroque, Rococo, and with neo-Palladianism turned late 18th century designers towards the original Roman and Greek prototypes. Some selectively borrowed from another place and time which became fashionable. It was the Greek aspect that was particularly strong in the United States from the beginning years of the 19th century till 1850. Some new settlements were done by Greek names as Ithaca, Syracuse, Doric, Troy, Ionic columns, pediments, and Entablatures which were mostly transformed into white-painted wood, they were also applied to public buildings and were also important townhouses in the style called Greek revival.
In France, the imperial cult of Napoleon architecture in a more Roman direction, which was also witnessed in the Church of the Madeleine around 1807 to 1842 was a huge Roman temple in Paris. The French thoughts for architecture were a turning point of the era by the highly imaginative published projects of Etienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicholas Ledoux. These were the people who got inspired by the massive aspects of the Egyptian and roman work, and their work and monumental composition were very innovative. Even today they are admired as visionary architects.
The most respected architect of that era was Sir John Soane, he built the museum as his own London house in 1812-1813, it still excites the astonishments for its innovative romantic virtuosity. The late English neoclassical came to be seen as elitist or the new Houses of Parliament, where the authorities insisted on Tudor revival or Gothic. The former architect was Sir Charles Barry, he was not a Gothic expert but he got involved as a consultation architect. Sir A. W. N. Pugin was the person who was responsible for the details of the vastness of monuments that began in 1836. Sir Pugin was having a short and contentious career, which also made a moral issue out of a return to the Gothic style. Some of the architects felt free to get selected whatever elements from the past cultures fixed their programs. The Gothic was for Protestant Churches and Baroque was for Roman Catholic churches, Palladian for institutions, Greek for banks, Egyptian for cemeteries, and early Renaissance style for libraries.
In the other half of the 19th-century dislocations brought about by the impact of industrial revolutions became overwhelming. So many of them were shocked by the hideous urban districts of the factories and the worker’s housing, by the deterioration of the public taste among the freshly rich people. For the new modes of transportation, tunnels, canals, railroads, and bridges, architects were employed only for the provision of the cultural veneer. The huge Crystal Palace which was constructed from 1850-1851 and got reconstructed from 1852-1854 at London and a vast but ephemeral exhibition hall was the work of Sir Joseph Paxton. A man who learned how to put glass and iron together in the large greenhouses designs. It also demonstrates hitherto undreamed aspects of spatial beauty and which is carefully planned building procedure, it also includes prefabricated standard parts, the foreshadowed industrial building, and the widespread use of steel and cast iron.
The important thing about its innovative way of using metal was the great tower from the year 1887-1889of Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel at Paris. It was the most gifted architecture sought of time to escape from their increasingly industrial environment by its development from traditional themes and eclectic styles. The two contrasting but the equality they maintained brilliantly which were the conceived examples of the sumptuous Paris Opera from 1861 to 1875 by Charles Garnier and Boston’s grandiose Trinity Church from 1872 to 1877 by Henry Hobson Richardson.
The taxes against windows, glass, and bricks were repealed which seems new and interesting in using these building materials. Factories made up of glass were having developed and complex designs which were a popular decoration in the classical and Gothic building on iron grillwork. Some other materials like terracotta manufacturing improvements were also allowed for more construction due to the impact of the industrial revolution. The steel skeletons were used to be covered with masonry and a large glass skylight came in highlight.
Other improvements such as the iron-making procedures encouraged the building of bridges and other structures. Some large indoor open spaces made possible with the use of strong iron framed construction were also called ideal for factories, train stations, and museums. The Eiffel tower was built for the exhibition in Paris in 1889 as a dramatic demonstration by the French of their mastery of upcoming construction technology. The architects and engineers belonged to new and decorative art, which were iron corners, ornamental bolts extending beyond the mainline, also a sort of Gothic lacework of iron.