When the city of New York is mentioned, the mind conjures up images of skyscrapers and crowded streets. As one of the world’s most populous and economically significant cities, New York is widely regarded as a symbol of power, money, and a great deal of history. Over the last 400 years of the city’s history, New York has stamped its authority with an evolving architectural language, staying relevant to the times and lives of all New Yorkers. Today, New York City is a melting pot of people from various cultures and ethnicities, accommodating everyone who wishes to live the American dream.

New York City is an amalgamation of its five boroughs – Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island, and the Bronx. The image of the city is defined mainly by the skyscrapers of Manhattan, the lively and vibrant Times Square, and the lungs of the city, Central Park. The European style of housing with wooden, brick, or stone cladding and pitched roofs influenced early New York architecture. The 19th century saw the Greek Revival form of architecture adopted by the city to build impressive structures like the Federal Hall. New York gained beautiful churches such as St. Patrick’s Cathedral and Trinity Church as it transitioned from Greek Revival to Gothic Revival. The 20th century saw a trend of skyscrapers that would define the skyline of New York as we know it.

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Map of New York from 1776_©pinterest.com

Evolution of architecture in New York City

The Federal Hall of New York City was one of the first historical structures to serve as a meeting place for the colonial Stamp Act Congress. The structure represents the start of the American Revolution. The current structure was built in 1842, while the original structure that served as New York’s first City Hall was built in 1706. The Greek Revival-style structure features a colonnade of Doric columns made of Tuckahoe marble and a domed rotunda modeled after the Parthenon and Pantheon, echoing the republican ideals of ancient Romans.

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Federal Hall representing Greek Revival style_©pinterest.com

The rise of New York as a political and economic powerhouse began at the southern tip of Manhattan. The structures built in and around South Manhattan symbolized the wealth and international status of the United States. As commerce expanded in this area, old houses grew into taller buildings for Wall Street’s Financial District. The popular Broadway street, which was used by Dutch traders to connect New Amsterdam to Albany, was widened to accommodate the wealthy SoHo shopping district.

As commerce invaded Broadway and south Manhattan in the following decades, the city’s affluent population moved northward, forming the Upper East side of Manhattan. Those who couldn’t afford to move northwards moved further across the East River to the boroughs of Brooklyn. The Brooklyn Bridge, built in 1883, was the longest suspension bridge in the world at the time. And just in the next few years, New York gained the symbol for which it would be known in the years to come. The Statue of Liberty.

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Brooklyn Bridge_©pinterest.com
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Statue of Liberty_©pinterest.com

The Master plan

The growth of New York City followed a street grid master plan laid out by the Commissioner’s Plan of 1811. This document is regarded as the most important document in the development of New York City as we see it today. The master plan envisioned the growth of the city from the southern side of Manhattan, Greenwich Village, to the northern end, known as Washington Heights. The layout is set out, outlining 12 avenues and 155 cross streets between Greenwich and Washington Heights.

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NYC Grid Master Plan from 1811_©pinterest.com

One of the differences between the master plan of 1811 and the New York City of today is the 843-acre open space in the middle of the city. The addition of the iconic Central Park was one of the significant alterations to the master plan. The landscape architects Fredrick Law Olmstead and Calvert Vaux won the design competition for the park, and the construction started immediately, with the first areas opening to the public in 1858. Wooded areas, watercourses, the presence of a variety of migratory birds, and urban plazas make Central Park the most visited urban park in the United States. 

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View of Central Park from Rockefeller Centre_©wikipedia.org

Reforms and Skyscrapers

Just as every coin has two sides, not everyone in New York lived a desirable life. As business and commerce soared in the city, so did the population. Immigrants flooded the city and lived in difficult and impoverished conditions until the 1901 housing reforms improved the city’s minimum living conditions. Another act that shaped the architectural development of New York City was the 1916 Zoning Resolution. This resolution, along with industrialization and technological advances like elevators and electricity, formed the foundation of high-rise developments in New York City.

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1916 Zoning Resolution Act_©globotreks.com
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Flatiron Building_©pinterest.com

At the turn of the nineteenth century, industrialization and urbanization drove immigrants into the city, increasing land prices and making high-rise buildings cost-effective. The construction of high-rise buildings saw a boost in the first half of the 20th century, with the record for the world’s tallest building being broken six times between 1908 and 1931. While the current tallest structure is not from New York City, the city has always had a strong connection with skyscrapers and has set the trend for the rest of the world to follow. The Flatiron Building, designed by Daniel Burnham and built in 1902, was one of the first skyscrapers built on an acute-shaped site, resembling a classical Greek column with Beaux-Arts styling.

Various buildings vied for the title of “tallest building in the world” over the next few decades. Some of the most famous skyscrapers built in the mid-twentieth century included the Trump Building, the Chrysler Building, and the Empire State Building. And eventually, the Empire State Building remained the tallest building in the world for 40 years. As the trend continued over the years, New York kept on reinventing itself with the latest technology on its hands and reached for the skies with glistening and slender glass towers. These towers provide New York City with a skyline that is recognized all over the world. With further challenges like sustainability on hand, the city will look to reinvent itself further.

New York City skyline_©newyorkwelcome.net

References:

  1. Norbert. (May 30 2020). A Quick History Tour of New York City’s Architectural Evolution. 

Available at : https://www.globotreks.com/destinations/united-states/new-york-city-architecture/ 

  1. Architecture of New York City. (Last updated 2021).

Available at : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture_of_New_York_City#:~:text=New%20York%20has%20architecturally%20significant,large%2Dscale%20gothic%20architectural%20detail

  1. New York Spaces. (Last updated 2022). New York’s Design And Architectural Evolution. 

Available at : https://newyorkspaces.com/new-yorks-design-and-architectural-evolution/ 

  1. Central Park (Last updated 2022).

Available at : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Park#Design_and_layout

Author

Poornima is an architect from the city of Pune. Being a heritage enthusiast, she loves to explore the various threads of architecture, culture, and ecology that tie a community. She hopes to bring about a change in the perception of development in India.

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