There is continuous evolution in architecture, whether it’s about construction technology or tools required to design. In 21 century, there is more sustainability, that is, buildings that conserve heat, reduce heat consumption and sometimes produce heat for themselves. The building used passive cooling and heating techniques. The building may have a wastewater plant, rainwater harvesting, and use that water for sanitary services and gardening. Some buildings have green roofs and green walls, which cools the inner space.
Architectural Styles in 21st Century
It consists of curves, rounded forms, and organic movement. It includes spherical buildings, amoebic buildings, and domes. The forms are derived through digital computation. They have a skin of computed tomography.’
It does not have characteristics such as symmetry, harmony, and continuity. It was greatly influenced by cubism. It is of chaotic forms, random angles, and disjointed elements.
3. High Tech Architecture
It is also called structural expressionism that emerged in the late 1970s and incorporated high-tech technology elements. The most dominant feature of a building is its oblique form. It is categorized as a form of modern architecture. It is highlighted and placed at accurate positions instead of hiding the structural members and adds extra structural components. An example is a JohnHancock center in Chicago designed by Bruce Graham and Fazlur Khan.
4. Neo Futurism
Itis a movement in the later 20th early -21 century of arts, design, and architecture. The ideology of neo-futurist urban designers and architects is to release the emotions driven by ethical values, eco-sustainability and implement new materials and technology to provide a better lifestyle for city dwellers. The structures built today can be considered a by-product of new materials to design the form, which was quite impossible previously.
It is based on the ideology to construct or renovate the building using energy-efficient ways, eco-friendly technology, and renewable materials to reduce traditional energy resources. It aims to create an environmentally positive environment. It works on the idea to reduce waste, not only bodily waste but to minimize energy usage. California Academy of Science has a living roof and is one of the best examples of sustainable architecture.
Architectural design in the 21st Century
1. Beijing National Stadium
It was constructed ahead of the Olympic Games in 2008, and its structure is inspired by the bird’s nest and has a lattice steel construction.
2. Absolute World Toronto, Canada
A residential project in twin towers located in the Toronto Suburb. These two towers are different from traditional skyscrapers; they appear to be twisted over one another.
3. The Blue Planet, Copenhagen, Denmark
It occupies the function of an Aquarium, mimicking the fluid nature of the ocean. It has a capacity of some 7 million liters of water. Its size can be expanded up to 30 percent if the need arises.
4. BMW Welt, Munich Germany
Space is designed to give car manufacturers a new space to experience its history and purchase their new model. There is a solar array installed on its roof, which can generate 800KW of electricity.
5. City of Arts and Science, Valencia, Spain
It is a group of built forms designed in Ultra Modern style. L’Hemisferic can be observed in the foreground and the background, there is Palau De Les Arts Reina Sofia.
6. Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles USA
Its metallic surfaces are allied to Gehry’s signature style. Its seamless, reflective steel surface makes light act as an Architectural medium. A thin metal panel allows the freedom for more curvatures.
7. Gardens by the Bay, Marina Bay Singapore
It is a natural park that spans over 107 hectares in the central region of Singapore adjacent to Marina Reservoir. It includes diverse collections of plants around 1.5 million.
8. Harpa Concert Hall, Reykjavik, Iceland
It has multicolored glass panels. It was opened during the period of the Icelandic Depression, it depicts as a ray of hope and advancement for the country’s capital.
9. Metropol Parasol Seville, Spain
It is the largest wooden structure in the world which is made out of birch. It consists of an Archeological Museum and the restaurant, providing a shelter for Seville’s Central market.
10. National Center for Performing Arts (The Egg) Beijing, China
An opera house has a capacity of 22398 people. Andreu aims to design in such a way so that it is instantly recognizable. It is covered with titanium plates consolidated with ultra-white glass, low iron glass with high light transmission.
11. Seattle Central Library, Seattle USA
A large glass building where straight lines intersect. Large blocks articulate it at different levels. It is in harmony with the skyline of the city of Seattle. It has a great response towards tourism, contributes towards economic growth.
12. The Shard, London, UK
The project faced a lot of criticism at its beginnings but now it’s not less than the iconic London Landmark. IT is the tallest building in Western Europe.
13. Statoil Regional and International offices, Oslo, Norway
It is a corporate office with a capacity of around 2500 employees and designed with the mindset that every employee deserves its prime working space. It boasts exceptionally amazing views of Oslo Fjord.
14. UNIC by Mad Architects
It is characterized by its interaction with nature which submerges with urban surroundings. The undulating floor plates form a series of terraces that create balconies on the terraces. It boosts the panoramic view of the city and the Eiffel tower.