The description of Paradise in the Holy Quran served as the basis for the design of gardens all over the Muslim World and was also incorporated into Islamic Architecture. They tried to create reflections of Paradise on Earth. The influence could be seen from India in the east to Spain in the west. The variations in the design are derived according to the regional differences that exist.
MAIN CONCEPT AND PHILOSOPHIES
Architecture as Tawhid: Unity and Ubiquity of Allah
An Islamic structure should focus on strengthening the bond between Muslims within the conformity of God’s will. The garden acts as a gathering space and catering to the need for a social space for society.
The architecture of Ihtiram: Respect
Should portray obedience to Allah. It is mentioned in the Quran that Allah loves beautification. Gardens are a form of beautifying a space. It is an act of piousness to please Allah.
Architecture with Ikhlas: Sincerity
The design should depict purity and sincerity. The symmetrical planning and the grandeur of the garden in itself depict the dedication and sincerity that helped in the evolution of Islamic Architecture that constituted:
- Balance and Symmetry
- Concept of perfect creation
- Formal Landscape
- Centered upon God
Architecture as the pursuit of Ilm: Knowledge
It is celebrated through calligraphy of religious inscriptions and uses light as an expression of knowledge. The enclosure of the garden is ornamented with calligraphic inscriptions.
Muslims believe in monotheism derived from them to produce this unique Islamic art that is a clear depiction of Unity with Variety.
It is a decorative element of building facades carved with verses from the Quran. The inscriptions are more or less utilized in framing on the facades of the built structure.
Architecture for Iqtisad: Balance
It should have harmony between functional and spiritual elements.
The architecture of Haya: Modesty
The basic concept of Islamic philosophy is the design that was modest and simple. Inward planning was practiced to maintain privacy due to regional and cultural ethics.
Latticed windows or openings to allow light and serve for the view of the external world.
The Paradise Garden came into prominence during the Islamic Rule. The Paradise Garden acts as a metaphor for paradise on Earth. The term Paradise is derived from a Greek word, paradeisos, which is taken from an old Avestan word predating the old Persian word, pairidaeza, meaning enclosure.
The concept of enclosure of green space was introduced in Ancient Persian landscape practice. The garden was an answer to the aridity of the local climate where the high walled garden and the shady trees with its air-cooled streams of water and fountains, was a simple symbolic representation of paradise. Cool pavilions, flowing springs, gushing fountains, shady and fruitful trees, are some of the essential features of the garden. The use of water was given importance since water is scarce in the desert and they considered water as a sacred element and was bliss for them giving a calm and serene effect. The idea was to create a safe, green haven that would shut the harsh climate of the desert.
WATER IN ISLAMIC GARDEN
Initially, gardens were utilized to grow orchard trees for fruits and shade as well as crops for sustaining life. In Ancient Persia, water was scarcely available, so it was considered as a sacred entity that has dual application, one is for functional purpose and the other one is aesthetic and ornamentation purpose. The garden was provided with water channels with a sufficient slope to enable the irrigation system required for the garden. The water was obtained from natural resources such as springs, sinking wells. The water was transported through a network of conduit systems termed as ‘Qanat’ which was originally introduced in the 7th century C.E. in Persia. In the 8th century C.E., the Persians invented the water wheel to utilize the flowing water from the river and use it for irrigation.
Functional Aspect of Water
Water from aqueducts, reservoirs with the help of water lifting devices, the water enters the channels in the garden and distributes water through the quadrants to help reach water for enriching the plants. The water runs through each quadrant far enough so that plant roots can reach it. Access was allowed or denied by opening or blocking the entry points with either mud or stones.
The ornamental aspect of water
Water is used to define higher volume and creates symphonies and ripples. They act as an ornamentation element of the garden. Also, for the people of the deserts, water was scarcely available so channelizing water into their enclosure also displayed a sense of luxury.
Water as a means of passive cooling
The means of water created a tranquil environment in the hot arid region. It also helps in maintaining the micro-climate of the place.
The layout of the flow of water
The water channels were located at the central axis according to the char bagh layout, creating a cross plan section of four divisions. The water channels occupied the primary and secondary axes where the water appears to be sunken.
Water is irrigated in a straight line. The direction depends on the topography, followed by various angular paths, perpendicularly changing direction. It also influences the plant arrangement.
The water reflects the color of the canal bed which is usually turquoise and blue ceramic. If the color of the bed is brighter than the reflection becomes secondary.
They were metaphorically depicting the beauty on earth as compared to otherworldly things. The symbolism of these gardens was often displayed by the political, military, and diplomatic usage. The water flowing through the gardens emblemize the garden of the promised Paradise, as mentioned in the Quran.
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