Public spaces are open and accessible areas for all members of the public, regardless of their social, economic, or cultural background. They play a crucial role in reflecting and shaping society and its culture. These spaces are essential for community building as they provide a platform for social interaction and civic engagement. From ancient marketplaces to modern-day city plazas, parks, and malls, public spaces have evolved to meet the changing needs of society. Today focuses on creating mixed-use spaces that encourage healthy lifestyles while fostering community interaction and reflecting diverse cultures and identities that make up human society. Despite being significant social places, many challenges still need addressing, such as insufficient funding and maintenance of conflicting interests among stakeholders or exclusionary practices against marginalised communities within these shared resources called “public” spaces.

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Urban City_©weista

History of Public Spaces

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Forum Romanum_©Fabio Fistarol

Public spaces have been integral to human civilisation since ancient times, serving as hubs for social, cultural, and commercial activities. From the Greek Agora to the Roman Forum Romanum, public spaces played a crucial role in civic life by functioning as gathering places for politics, intellectual discourse, and commerce. During the Middle Ages, popular public spaces included market squares and churchyards. While in Europe, the rise of the Renaissance brought about developments such as piazzas, which served social and cultural purposes.

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Industrial Revolution_©Museums Victoria

As the Industrial Revolution transformed urban landscapes, public spaces took on greater significance as places for socialising and leisure. With the rise of factories and industrialisation, people had less free time, leading to a growing need for public spaces for relaxation and recreation. Parks and gardens offered respite from crowded and polluted city streets, while plazas and squares provided space for public gatherings and cultural events. This period also saw the emergence of new forms of public spaces, such as shopping arcades or department stores catering to the consumer culture of the time.

Examples of Contemporary Public Spaces

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Trafalgar Square_©Diane Picchiottino

Modern public spaces comprise many types, such as city plazas, parks, malls, public squares, and more. Each type of space serves a distinct purpose in shaping the society and culture surrounding it. City plazas are typically located at the centre of urban areas and act as a hub for locals and visitors. Some well-known city plazas globally include New York City‘s Times Square and London’s Trafalgar Square. These sites are popularised by their architectural and cultural importance. On the other hand, public squares like Piazza San Marco in Venice or Red Square in Moscow tend to be situated near crucial government buildings or religious institutions, making them essential historical landmarks that host important social events, including protests, concerts, and festivals.

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Central Park_©Jermaine Ee

Parks have become a popular type of public space worldwide, primarily due to their ability to offer sanctuary from fast-paced city life. They provide an ideal setting for people to relax, engage in recreational activities and attend community events. For example, Central Park in New York City and Hyde Park in London are renowned parks globally that attract visitors from different parts of the world. These parks have gained popularity over time by fostering community engagement, promoting wellness, and preserving green spaces within urban areas.

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Mall of America Theme Park Area_©Jeff Coleman

Malls have become a dominant type of public space in the modern era. Their enormous commercial complexes house a broad range of retail stores, restaurants, cinemas, and other entertainment facilities under one roof. Although some critics view malls as mere temples of consumerism that encourage materialism and superficiality, others argue that they serve an essential social function by providing a safe and convenient gathering place for communities. Malls can offer shelter from the weather and access to public amenities like restrooms and seating areas; moreover, opportunities for leisure activities abound within them. The architecture of modern malls often incorporates elements of contemporary design with an emphasis on creating an immersive and stimulating experience for visitors. The Mall Of America, located in Bloomington, Minnesota, is currently recognised as the largest mall in the United States, covering over 5.6 million square feet and featuring more than 500 stores alongside indoor amusement parks plus aquariums, among other attractions available to its patrons.

Public Spaces Tomorrow

Sustainable Building_©Danist Soh

As public spaces evolve, there is an increasing emphasis on creating sustainable and inclusive environments that mirror the values and aspirations of contemporary society. For instance, new developments are integrating green spaces, bike lanes, and public art installations to promote a healthier and more visually appealing environment. Additionally, accessibility and inclusivity in public spaces have become more common with features like wheelchair ramps or audio guides for individuals with physical impairments. These public areas should provide a space where people can live, work, and play in one location, promoting community sense while reducing long commutes’ necessity.

Hudson Yards Under Construction Aerial View_©Oxford

The Hudson Yards project exemplifies how modern malls can be designed to reflect contemporary values and aspirations while promoting community interaction and mixed development. This development includes a large shopping mall, luxury apartments, office buildings, and public spaces connected by an expansive outdoor park. The project has been designed sustainably, featuring green roofs, rainwater collection systems, and energy-efficient building materials. Additionally, the development has incorporated public art installations and community spaces, such as an outdoor performance venue, promoting cultural engagement and community building.

Hudson Yards Project Centerpiece_©Nelson Byrd Woltz

Bringing Community Bank to Public Spaces

Public spaces have been essential throughout human civilisation, as hubs for social, cultural, and economic activities. Today’s public spaces are designed to reflect contemporary society’s values and aspirations by promoting mixed-use developments and community interaction. They serve as mirrors of society and culture, providing a sense of identity and continuity to the surrounding communities. In a world where people are increasingly isolated and divided, public spaces serve as vital meeting places for people of all backgrounds, bringing the community back to the forefront of daily lives. As such, it is essential to recognise the significance of public spaces and continue to invest in their design, maintenance, and accessibility to ensure they remain integral parts of our urban landscapes.


Bauer, P. (2023) Mall of America, Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Available at: (Accessed: March 28, 2023). 

Lehrer, J. (2019) A Sustainability Guide to Hudson Yards, NYC & Company. Available at: (Accessed: March 28, 2023). 

Navickas, K. (no date) Contested public and private spaces in England, a history of public space. Available at: (Accessed: March 28, 2023). 


S, an architecture student, strives for innovative designs that inspire and enhance communities. Focused on sustainability and well-being, she aims to bring bold ideas to life through a deep understanding of architecture.