Construction in India – Historically and traditionally, materials and labor have been emphasized as the two prime building cost components. Architects have spent their professional lifetimes judging the relative merits of various materials and methods of construction, then selecting and specifying the most “economical” for incorporation in the building. The constructors, on the other hand, have spent their respective business lifetimes trying to find—and substitute—less costly materials and methods. In the process of designing, selecting, specifying, bidding, submitting, approving, buying, and building—the industry has continued to emphasize labor and materials cost components almost exclusively.

As a result, some very major construction cost factors have been largely ignored. in facing the almost certain fact of continued inflation, the factor of Time as a cost component becomes increasingly important. For years, the construction industry—and, particularly, the architectural profession—has repealed the “timely” aphorisms— “time is money” and “time is of the essence”.

These two slogans deserve more than lip service; they very ’well may provide the key to the future of the industry. As an industry, and especially within the design professions, little meaningful attention has been given to the implications of Time. To put it simply, a client will get more building per dollar by using the least amount of elapsed time in the total project— planning, design, and construction.

“Architecture is not based on concrete and steel, and the elements of the soil. It’s based on wonder.”– Daniel Libeskind.

Cost of Construction in India - Sheet1
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The more diverse the Indian land is, the equally diverse the cost of construction in India. Not only the diversity but the home construction cost depends on multiple factors, including civil and finishing costs; hence, it varies across locations. The precise definition of the word quality, as many similar words such as reality and truth, are elusive.

The harmonization of cost concepts, categories, and the clarification of important terms can be seen as a step forward that will smooth the progress of identifying the factors affecting the construction costs that could finally explain the cost escalation and all the differences. Not just do these factors smooth the process but decide a clear and justified way to draft labor costs. The scale of the project, the time required to complete the project, and the needed skill set are the parameters that mark the daily wages of labor and thus finally conclude the construction of any project including labor charges as directed by the labor laws while other by the contractor or the owner. Just like labor charges, material availability and transportation is another major driving factor toward the cost of construction per sq ft.

Cost of Construction in India - Sheet2

Largely, the construction cost of a house is the cost of civil work with the finishing costs. the construction costs vary from Rs 1,000 sq ft to Rs 5,000 per sq ft, according to the city and site of construction. civil cost of the brick wall with RCC column is from Rs 900 per sq ft to Rs 1,000 per sq ft. Moreover, the finishing work of doors, windows, wooden, sanitary, and electric fitting vary from Rs 500 per sq ft to Rs 3,000 per sq ft. Therefore, the average construction cost of a 1,000 sq ft home differs from Rs 1,300 per sq ft to Rs 5,000 per sq ft.

(Source- CPWD Plinth Area Rates-2021) | Construction in India

Cost of Construction in India - Sheet3
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“As an architect, you design for the present, with an awareness of the past for a future which is essentially unknown” – Norman Foster.

Availability of Material supply is usually more predictable and controllable than labor. It is surprising, however, how often materials are specified that are either unavailable locally or unfamiliar to local contractors. Specially designed items often cause costly Large or specially fabricated structural members can cause shipping, ‘fabrication, and erection delays that may be prohibitive in costs. Specification of local materials may be extremely beneficial in cost savings, especially such high freight items as stone, brick, etc.

Each building speaks a different cost of construction in India, with varying in the typology of the projects, increasing number of floors, heavy flooring and finishings, and contour elevated sites often generate more cost. As buildings become more complex, projects larger in scope, and time intervals extended between the start of construction and occupancy, the problem of depreciation costs becomes more acute.

Thus, the problem of funding depreciation—a common book¬ keeping item during the useful life of a building—can also be a problem during the construction period. This is especially true when applied to today’s structures filled with sophisticated and complicated equipment and controls, the majority of which has a relatively short average useful life.

The entire construction industry is continually and avidly discussing types of contracts and their effect on project costs. That there can be a positive or negative effect on total costs seems to be a foregone conclusion, but the relative merits and demerits of the different contract agreements are always being questioned by various social interest groups in the industry.

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Despite traditional jokes to the contrary, architects have usually considered the ability to determine and control costs as one of their prime responsibilities. Historically, “over-the-budget” projects have been few compared with the total volume of building construction. But today’s facts and figures tell a different story.

The question is not whether the architect should involve himself in all facets of his profession, from finance to construction management; he cannot avoid this involvement. The very enormity of today’s urban affliction forces him to assume a new set of responsibilities having little or nothing to do ‘with his basic professional training in the art of building.

“The future has a habit of suddenly and dramatically becoming the present.”—Roger Babson To say that the architect’s role has changed over the past 100 years is an obvious redundancy; but, the fact remains. A century ago, the architect was hired as a status symbol to surround his clients with cultural trappings and to veneer building exteriors with ornament. The architectural profession today is struggling to discover its identity and define its future role in the construction industry. The present overlap of activities and professions in the industry, with the attendant redefinition of responsibilities, has created a situation that demands a new analysis and definition of traditional architectural parameters of practice. 


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