The ambition to construct taller buildings and the rush to the sky is, in many respects, as old as time. However, the total height of the tallest skyscrapers has risen dramatically in the recent century, but this does not imply that they have always been magnificent pieces of art. Designers are constantly reinventing modern buildings to make them taller and more inventive. Each structure symbolises the evolution of urban design, from the early twentieth-century Art Deco trend to a more current, neo-futuristic style. Finally, the skyline of any city tells a story of innovation and ambition, and these 25 amazing structures are no exception.

Among the most stunning modern marvels are the buildings that rise to extraordinary heights above the clouds and appear to go on forever. They are sometimes office buildings, sometimes residential constructions, and sometimes a combination of both.

Here’s a compiled list of some of the world’s most finely built structures. 

The Spiral, New York City

Location: New York, Manhattan’s Hudson Yards:
Architects: Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG)
Height: 317-meter
Type: 66-story distinctive skyscraper
Area: 2.85 million square feet, (265,000 m2)
Year: 2016

Sustainable by design, and built keeping humans in mind, The Spiral embodies Tishman Speyer’s audacious vision and optimism for the future of our city.

The high-rise tower’s design is inspired by a combination of historic and contemporary design influences.

The tower’s intertwining of a continuous green path with the workplaces on every level is a distinctive design element. The tower’s distinctive feature is the manicured terraces, which wrap around it in a spiralling manner.

The Spiral improves the health and happiness of the staff by providing sunshine, fresh air, and access to outdoor space.

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manicured terraces _© https://gbdmagazine.com/sustainable-skyscraper-spiral/
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manicured terraces _© https://www.thespiralny.com/#

Merdeka 118

Location: stadium Merdeka precinct, Kuala Lumpur
Architects: RSP Architects jointly with Fender Katsalidis
Height: 678.9 meters (2,227 feet)
Type: supertall skyscraper
Area: 292,000m2
Completion Year: late 2022

A mixed-use tower, which will be a significant new tourist attraction, will house the city’s most intriguing hospitality, retail, and residential experiences, including the park Hyatt Kuala Lumpur and the largest double-height observation deck in Southeast Asia. 

The triangular glass facets that form the sculptural folds that characterise Merdeka 118’s facade draw their design cues from traditional Malaysian patterns in both art and craft as well as the country’s rich cultural variety.

The skyscraper is surrounded by a four-acre linear water park that was created by Boston-based landscape architect Sasaki. It is a park without cars created to encourage active neighbourhood engagement for citizens of all ages and backgrounds. Additionally, it will forge a significant aesthetic alliance with the esteemed Petronas and Kuala Lumpur towers.

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Merdeka 118_© https://www.arup.com/projects/merdeka-118

Ping’an International Financial Center

Location: Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
Architects: American architectural firm Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates
Height: 115-story, 599 m (1,965 ft)
Type: supertall skyscraper
Area: 378,600 square meters
Completion Year: 2017

The Ping’an Finance Center is now the highest structure in Shenzhen, the second-tallest structure in China, and the fifth-tallest structure on earth.  

The façades of the tower’s top level taper to form a pyramid, giving it a prismatic appearance. Eight composite super-columns that extend beyond the building’s perimeter highlight the form. This layout is not only aesthetically pleasing but also useful. The tower’s streamlined design enhances structural and wind performance by 35% lessening baseline wind loads. One of Ping An Finance Center’s most significant elements is the façade.

The tower has the largest stainless steel façade ever constructed, weighing 1,700 tonnes of 316L stainless steel. Due to its corrosion resistance and ability to maintain the Ping An Finance Center’s aesthetic over several decades despite Shenzhen’s salty coastal environment, this material was specifically chosen for this project.

The structure houses a conference centre, a high-end mall, an office, hotel, and retail space.

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Ping’an International Financial Center _© https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ping_An_International_Finance_Centre

Cor Building, Miami

Location:  Miami, Florida
Architects:  Oppenheim Architecture + Design Height: 115-story, 599 m (1,965 ft)
Type: Green mixed-use tower
Area: 480,000 sqft
Completion Year: Unknown

Incorporating the most recent developments in wind turbines, photovoltaic, and solar hot water generation into its architectural identity, Cor, which rises 400 feet above the Design District, embodies a dynamic synergy between architecture, structural engineering, and ecology.

The building structure, thermal mass for insulation, shading for natural cooling, enclosure for terraces, armatures for turbines, and loggias for gathering on the ground are all simultaneously provided by a polka-dotted hyper-efficient exoskeleton shell. Composed of live/work, commercial, office, fitness, and purely residential areas, COR offers a remarkably adaptable platform for enhancing lifestyles.

Design techniques incorporated into the design:

Local renewable energy sources Windmills and solar-heated water the grey water system features low-water gardening, a pool area with a green roof, and renewable resources (e.g., bamboo flooring), bamboo floor, repurposed glass tiles providing residential apartments with the choice of concrete or “paper stone” counters, high-performance plumbing equipment, no-water urinals, toilets with two flushes, on the mechanical area a white single-ply thermoplastic membrane roof, terraces and gardens on the penthouse units’ green roofs, highly insulated roofs and walls, Low-e windows,office and home windows that can be operated, concrete with a high fly ash concentration, low VOC adhesives and paints, local materials and stones are preferable to imported ones with embodied energy, bicycle facilities: Bike racks are provided in parking levels to encourage residents and office workers to bicycle.

The skin is a structural sheer wall made of concrete that provides thermal bulk, solar shade, and natural cooling by reducing solar gains. The white façade’s reflective properties further reduce solar gains.

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Cor Building, Miami _©https://anouchehachmanian.com/zoom/cor-miami/

Shanghai Tower

Location: Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai.
Architects: International design firm Gensler
Height: 128-story, 632-meter-tall (2,073 ft)
Type: Mega tall skyscraper
Area: 380,000 m2 (4,090,300 sq ft)
Completion Year: late 2015

It is the third-tallest skyscraper in the world. Since 2015, it has held the title of the world’s tallest and largest LEED Platinum-certified structure.

The building’s 128 storeys are divided among nine cylindrical towers that are stacked on top of one another. The inside layers of the tower’s face enclose each level. There are nine zones and each of these nine zones has an atrium with cafes, gardens, and retail areas in addition to stunning views of the city. By being naturally lighted, plant-filled atriums, the meeting spaces are piled vertically, with “sky lobbies” separating the various zones to mimic town plazas and courtyards.

Further, The building’s transparent second skin lets in the most light while also serving as an insulating layer to save energy. In the winter, this warms the chilly outside air, and in the summer, it releases heat from the inside. The large cantilevered trusses that support the double curtain wall are stabilised by the use of hoop rings and struts.

More than 20,000 curtain wall panels in more than 7,000 distinct forms were needed to fit the unusual building shape. 

The tower is supported by steel super columns and a sturdy concrete core, and the nine cylindrical portions of the building are delineated by ‘branches’ that stretch out from the base of each zone. To reduce sway, a 1,000-metric-ton tuned mass damper is placed close to the top of the tower.

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Shanghai tower_© https://artincontext.org/shanghai-tower/

Bank of America Tower (New York City)

Location: Avenue of the Americas, Midtown Manhattan neighbourhood of New York City.
Architects: Cookfox Architects
Height: 55-story, 1,200 feet (370 m)
Type: skyscraper
Area: 2.1 million square feet (200,000 m2)
Completion Year: 2009

This building’s excellent performance and innovative design aim to raise the bar for commercial buildings and the workplace setting. The architects reimagine the constraints of the skyscraper as more than a glass box by concentrating on ways to emphasise sunshine, fresh air, and a connection to the outdoors. Cook+Fox create an incredibly transparent corner entrance, merging the open street with the exclusive office complex. It provides ample light for the foyer and acts as a gentle transition between daytime business and city activity.

The neighbouring park is incorporated into the building through green roofs and an urban garden room, which, along with the natural materials used in the foyer, highlights the natural aspects of city living. Since the building’s shape deviates from its footprint, more surface area is exposed to daylight and aligned views of Bryant Park are provided. 

The building is properly insulated and shielded from excessive heat gain thanks to sustainable measures. The structure also uses water-saving techniques like rainwater collection systems, greywater recycling, and waterless urinals.

Additionally, the building filters the air that is sent to the workplaces and offers individual control. 

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Bank of America Tower (New York City) _©https://structurae.net/en/structures/bank-of-america-tower-2009-new-york

One Central Park (Sydney, Australia)

Location: central park, Chippendale NSW 2008, Sydney, Australia
Architects: Ateliers Jean Nouvel
Height: 117-metre-tall (384 ft)
Type: living wall, mixed-use tower
Area: 4,600 m2 (157,153 sq ft)
Completion Year: 2013

To create a lush modern canopy, the public park at the centre of the precinct climbs the side of the floor-to-ceiling glass towers. The buds and blooms of the flora on the façade, created in partnership with French botanist and artist Patrick Blanc using 250 species of Australian flowers and plants, cover over 50% of the building’s façade.

The building’s landscape extends the planted area of the nearby urban park vertically onto it, providing occupants with an extraordinary living space and a potent green symbol on Sydney’s skyline.

A variety of climbing and spreading plants are supported by hydroponic walls, low-profile horizontal planters, and support cables integrated into the tower’s exterior. The plants serve as a natural solar control system that adapts to the seasons, protecting the apartments from direct sunlight in the summer and letting in the most sunshine possible in the winter.

Near its apex, the residential tower is distinguished by a colossal cantilever. A common area and sweeping terrace are located on the cantilever for the residential apartments. Sunlight is captured and reflected downward into the portion of the park that is shaded by the tower using a motorised heliostat that is fixed to the cantilever.  

The design advances the fusion of landscape and tower architecture to a new level and provides Sydney with a brand-new architectural landmark that represents the sustainable future of the city.

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One Central Park (Sydney, Australia) _©http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/one-central-park/

Oasia Hotel (Singapore)

Location: Peck Seah Street, Singapore
Architects: WOHA
Height: AMSL 199.080 m
Type: Biophilic skyscraper
Area: 19,416 sqm
Completion Year: 2016

One of Asia’s most beautiful skyscrapers is the Oasia Hotel Downtown, which was built by the Singaporean architectural studio Woha.

The building is first surrounded by a signal-red mesh envelope, a unique colour splash in the area, followed by covert patches of green that appear to be gently encasing the structure. Even in Singapore, where developers deploy green walls as a badge of environmental seriousness, planted façades are nothing new. However, they have never been elevated to this height, literally.

The hotel rises amid glass and concrete, with a striking porous crimson steel façade(25,490 square meters)  that promotes biodiversity against a stark concrete background. The intention is to completely encircle Oasia in greenery by using butting planters(a total of 1,793 planter boxes on the façade) on each storey.

This hotel defies the trend of a sealed tower; the design’s internal breezeways and atriums, several protected terraces, sky gardens, and vertical greening enable visitors to adapt and experience Singapore’s tropical environs. 

The mesh on the façade forms a veil that reflects heat and offers up to 60% shade. 

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Oasia Hotel (Singapore) _©https://www.world-architects.com/en/woha-singapore/project/oasia-hotel-downtown

Empire State Building, New York City

Location: New york
Architects: Shreve, Lamb and Harmon
Height: 120storey,1,250 feet (381 metres)
Type: Steel framed, Skyscraper
Area: 2,248,355 sq ft (208,879 m2)
Completion Year:1931 

The Empire State Building dominates the skyline of New York City with its towering height and distinctive design. It is the most stunning Art Deco skyscraper in the world, a living piece of New York history, and a universally recognised representation of contemporary city culture. The Empire State Building was the tallest structure in the world for nearly 40 years after it was finished, reaching 102 floors and 1,454 feet at its peak. It is still a magnificent architectural masterpiece and one of the largest towers in the world today. To house the company headquarters, the Empire State Building was formally constructed.

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Empire State Building, New York City _©https://www.architecturalrecord.com/articles/15011-empire-state-building-owner-is-now-nations-biggest-user-of-100-green-power-in-real-estate

Torre Reforma, Mexico City, Mexico

Location: Mexico City, Mexico
Architects: Legorreta + Legorreta in collaboration with Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners.
Height:  807 feet (246 m)
Type: Skyscraper
Area: 89657 m²
Completion Year: 2016

The Torre Reforma rises significantly above Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City, , giving the impression that a perfectly cut diamond has been planted there.

Torre Reforma, a four-sided triangular, abruptly slopes downward from its highest point, a dramatic 46-meter-sloped roof connecting two concrete curtain walls to a glass curtain. The prism-shaped tower, which draws inspiration from colonial Mexican architecture but is strongly rooted in contemporary design, is covered on two sides by a tiled facade of concrete panels and on the third by the glass and a steel diagrid.

The building’s front performs a practical purpose in addition to being an experiment in flamboyant design, shielding it from the harsh Mexican sun while enabling light to enter the tower without altering its internal temperate. With hundreds of levels of office space, meeting rooms, an auditorium, a shopping mall, a multi-story fitness centre, bars, restaurants, gardens, and open plazas and terraces, Torre Reforma functions as a vertical village.

The interlocking concrete facade and structural steel diagrid were created to reduce earthquake reverberations and protect individuals within, addressing Mexico City’s seismic dangers.

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Torre Reforma, Mexico City, Mexico_©https://www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/torre-reforma/942

MIRA

Location: San Francisco, California.
Architects:  Studio Gang Architects
Height: 39-story, 422-foot (129 m)
Type: Residential skyscraper
Area: 44,600 sqm (480,000 sq ft)
Completion Year: 2020

The design reinterprets the city’s architectural history while addressing San Francisco’s requirement for dense housing and providing new sustainable alternatives. It develops the traditional bay window and reimagines it for a high-rise setting, a common feature of early residences in San Francisco. The bays, which arc progressively upward along the height of the tower, provide good views, a lot of daylight and fresh air, as well as influencing the building’s distinctive form and texture. This is the result of careful consideration being given to the building’s energy efficiency and user experience. The bays turn every property into a corner unit by extending the livable spaces inside and providing platforms from which to see the city from all directions.

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MIRA _©https://studiogang.com/project/mira

Almas Tower 

Location: Jumeirah Lakes Towers, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Architects:  Atkins Middle East
Height: 68-storey, 360 m (1,180 ft)
Type: Super tall skyscraper
Area: 1,700,000 sq ft
Completion Year: 2009

Almas Tower, commonly referred to as Diamond Tower and situated on its island, is a very tall skyscraper and the undisputed centrepiece of Jumeirah Lake Towers (JLT). It is a business high-rise with a lot of office space.

Almas Tower has a three-story platform that has been carved into eight interlaced triangles, resembling the kite-shaped facets of a brilliant-cut diamond. Two elliptical towers rise through the podium and beautifully coalesce around the centre core.

The Al Mas Tower structure consists of two towers that overlap along their east-west axes: a shorter north-facing tower and a taller south-facing tower. While the south-facing tower’s façade has a high-performance finish to give it optimum protection from the heat, the north tower has a semi-transparent elevation to maximise the cool, ambient northern light. For quick construction, hollow-core pre-cast slabs were employed throughout.

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Alma Tower _©https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almas_Tower https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almas_Tower

Stantec Tower, Edmonton

Location: Ice District in the downtown core of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Architects: Santec
Height: 66-storey above and 4 underground, 250.8 m (823 ft)
Type: Skyscraper
Area: –
Completion Year: 2019

The Stantec Tower, which is 250.9 metres (823.2 feet) tall, is Canada’s tenth-highest structure overall and the tallest building outside of Toronto.  The tower has 454 residential units in addition to offices and retail space. It is close to Rogers Place, the NHL’s Edmonton Oilers’ home arena, and is situated northwest of Downtown Edmonton in the heart of the Ice District. It serves as the headquarters for Stantec.

The area needed to showcase Stantec’s design services, support their commitment to sustainability, and accommodate people from all over the world. It also had to reflect who Stantec is as a company. 

With its all-encompassing sustainable design, the skyscraper aims to achieve LEED Gold Core and Shell certification (exterior).

The Stantec Tower incorporates techniques for energy efficiency, a 35% decrease in water usage, the use of recycled and local materials, and careful consideration for indoor air quality through the use of low-emission materials.

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Santec Tower _©https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stantec#/media/File:StantecTower.jpg

Taipei 101 (Taipei, Taiwan)

Location: Taipei, Taiwan
Architects: C.Y.Lee & Partners
Height: 101 stories, height, including the spire, 1,667 feet (508 metres)
Type: Skyscraper
Area: 412,500 m2 (4,440,100 sq ft)
Completion Year: 2004

The goal of Taipei 101 was to emphasise Taiwan’s rising wealth on the international scene at the beginning of the twenty-first century and to represent how technology is advancing while fusing with Asian customs. The structure combines several pan-Asian and pan-Chinese characteristics with a postmodern architectural design. The tower is intended to rise in a sequence of 8-story modules, each with an outward flare that resembles the classic shape of Chinese pagodas.

A smaller tower that forms a pinnacle tops the structure.

Installed onto inclined, moment-resisting lattices hooked back to “mega-columns” every eighth storey, the façade system of glass and aluminium panels adds to overall lateral rigidity. The façade system can endure lateral seismic movement of up to 95 mm (4 in) without suffering any harm.

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Taipei 101 _©https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/taipei-101/taipei-101-the-tallest-building-of-the-world-2/

Bahrain World Trade Center (Manama, Bahrain)

Location: Manama, Bahrain
Architects:  London-based architectural firm Atkins
Height: 240-metre-high (787 ft), 50-floor
Type: Skyscraper
Floor Area: 16,500 m²
Completion Year: 2008

The Bahrain World Trade Center will be the first significant structure to employ wind power to meet its energy requirements.

The idea involved remodelling a hotel and a commercial centre in a posh neighbourhood close to the Arabian Gulf.

The two structures that form the complex are modelled by the sails of ships, which use wind energy to surf just as the World Trade Center does to power its operations.

The project also wants to demonstrate to the world that the United Arab Emirates, which is well-known for producing oil, has also introduced renewable energy.

Three bridges connecting the two towers support each of the three wind turbines built for the project. The wind’s natural rate can be increased by up to 30% thanks to the buildings’ optimised wind flow across the area where the turbines are located.

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Bahrain World Trade Center (Manama, Bahrain)_©https://glasspaint.com/iconic-glass-structures-bahrain-world-trade-centre/

Abode318 (Melbourne, Australia)

Location: Russell Street in Melbourne, Australia
Architects: Elenberg Fraser and Disegno Australia
Height: 57 levels, height of 187.3 metres (614.5 feet).
Type:  residential skyscraper
Floor Area: 45,000 m2 (480,000 sq ft)
Completion Year:2015 

Every property receives the luxury of a corner apartment view thanks to the undulating façade, which also adds a dynamic moving tower form to Melbourne’s downtown skyline.

Working with a constrained site, the conceptual strategy was to manipulate the façade so that every apartment had a panoramic view.

If you look closely, you can see that the thin tower has individual chambers that are articulated as protrusions along each of its horizontal and vertical waves.

This effect, which involves pulling a set of drawers at random, examines the connection between individualism and community. Each apartment presents itself differently to the street, resulting in a group of people with a variety of expressions, while the façade’s undulation connects the flats and acts as a sunshade.

The undulating façade controls wind pressure, which defines the varying amplitude and breaks up downdrafts to protect pedestrians, as well as articulating specific apartment vignettes. Its low-emissivity glass gives off a pink blush when viewed from the outside yet appears clear when viewed from the inside, providing a unique experience.

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Abode318 (Melbourne, Australia) _©https://www.australian-architects.com/en/elenberg-fraser-melbourne/project/abode318

Evolution Tower (Moscow, Russia)

Location: Moscow, Russia
Designers: Tony Kettel and Karen Forbes
Height: 246m
Type: Mixed-use tower
Floor Area: 82,000 m2 (882,641 sq ft)
Completion Year: 2014

The skyscraper known as Evolution Tower, which Tony Kettel and Karen Forbes created, has become a landmark in Moscow’s new urban tower.

The 52 storeys of this 82,000m2 office tower are spun by 3 degrees apiece, for a total twist of 156 degrees clockwise. The façade of the tower, which features the largest innovative cold-bent glazing in the world, offers a seamless floating reflection that rotates views of the Moscow skyline in a vertical direction. Reflected clouds that are rising in the sky enhance the tower’s dynamic visual impact, creating a never-before-seen optical effect in architecture. The Crown, which has a helipad at the very top and open viewing roof decks at Levels 51–52 with views of the historical centre and the best panoramas of Moscow’s riverfront, is supported by a steel framework consisting of two twisted arches.

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Evolution Tower (Moscow, Russia) _©https://www.freepik.com/premium-photo/evolution-tower-moscow_14688764.htm

Shanghai World Finance Center (Shanghai, China)

Location: Shanghai, China
Designers:  Kohn Pedersen Fox
Height: 101 Storeys, 1,614 feet
Type: Skyscraper
Floor Area: 381,600 m2 (4,107,500 sq ft)
Completion Year: 2008

A skyscraper with both office space and an entertainment complex, the Shanghai World Financial Center is a mixed-use structure. It has a ground-floor shopping centre, eateries, a hotel, meeting spaces, and offices. Some of the noteworthy architectural characteristics are:

Design Characteristics:

The skyscraper has a wide base and a narrow top. Its angled sides come together to form a rectangle at the top. The glass covering the structure is a double-paned mirror. It is supported by mixed structural steel diagonally braced corner columns. Both the exterior walls and the core are made of reinforced concrete. To distribute the wind power from the top of the building to the bottom, outrigger trusses are also used to support the bottom of the building. A trapezoid-shaped opening can be seen at the top of the high rise. The stress of wind pressure on the building is lessened by this opening. Shanghai World Financial Center is known as “the bottle opener” because of its aperture. The Shanghai World Financial Center is distinctive because it grows tall without a spire.There are three decks on the 94th, 97th, and 100th floors of the Shanghai World Financial Center. A glass skywalk on the 100th-floor observation deck offers views of the Huangpu River and allows access to the floors below.

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Shanghai World Finance Center (Shanghai, China)_©https://www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/shanghai-world-financial-center/131

Canton Tower (Guangzhou, China)

Location: Guangzhou, China
Architects: Information-Based Architecture
Height: 1,969 feet (600 metres)
Type: TV Astronomical and Sightseeing Tower
Floor Area: 114,054 m2 (1,227,700 sq ft)
Completion Year: 2010 

Guangzhou’s most significant new structure, the Canton Tower, will serve as a symbol of the 10 million-person metropolis’ cool, forward-thinking, and energetic nature. The 600-meter-tall world’s tallest TV tower, which will replace Toronto’s CN Tower, is expected to draw 10,000 tourists each day.

The goal was to create a free-form tower with a rich, human-like identity to reflect Guangzhou as a vibrant and exciting city. The end product is a very tall, slender tower that resembles a female Image , which is how it got its nickname, “super-model.”

Two ellipses—one at the foundation level and the other at a horizontal plane at 450 meters—create the form, volume, and structure. Relative to one another, these two ellipses are rotated. A “waist” is formed and the material becomes denser as a result of the tightness brought on by the rotation between the two ellipses. An 1100-node open lattice structure with an equal number of connecting rings and bracing pieces makes up the structure. In essence, the tower can be thought of as a massive three-dimensional puzzle, each of its 3300 parts being unique.

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Canton Tower_©https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Guangzhou_Tower.jpg

Petronas Twin Towers (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)

Location: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Architects: Cesar Pelli
Height: 451.8m
Type: Tower
Floor Area: 395,000 m2 (4,252,000 sq ft)
Completion Year: 1998

The building’s spectacular combination of stainless steel and glass finishing creates lovely Islamic patterns that are intended to evoke the handicrafts and weaving patterns found in Malaysia. Each tower floor plate is built using two interlocking squares that resemble an eight-pointed star and are simple Islamic geometric shapes. 

Designed with a system that seamlessly and simultaneously coordinates telecommunications, environment control, power supply, lighting, fire and smoke control, and building security, both towers are “intelligent” constructions.

The building, which was constructed with 899,000 square feet of stainless steel extrusions, was astonishingly free of heat and UV rays since it had 590,000 square feet of lamination glass covering its outside. 

To keep the design’s vertical axis and tapering, each Tower is repositioned five times as it ascends. Additionally inclined inward to taper and meet the pinnacle are the walls of the highest floors. A comfortable interior is provided with Vision Glass and specialised panels with light-filtering and noise-reduction features. To further shield visitors from the tropical sun, visors made of stainless steel are placed over the glass.

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Petronas Twin Towers _©https://www.thepoortraveler.net/2011/10/petronas-towers-suria-klcc-kuala-lumpur-singapore-cruise/

The Shard (London, England)

Location: London, England, UK
Architect: Renzo Piano
Height: 309.6 metres (1,016 ft)
Type: 72-storey skyscraper
Floor Area: 398,490 m2 (4,289,300 sq ft)
Completion Year:2012 

Due to the building’s resemblance to a shard of glass sticking out of the earth, the name “The Shard” was coined. To stand out against the London skyline without being overly obtrusive or crude, Renzo Piano set out to create the building. It was planned to use specialised windows with unique glazing that casts a distinctive reflection of light. The coating would reflect various light intensities in ways that would alter how the building appeared during various seasons or times of the day.

A building that is in use continuously combines a variety of uses, including residential, office, and retail. Due to this mix, the tower’s slender and pyramidal shape was chosen: private apartments at the top; restaurants, communal areas, and a hotel positioned in the middle; and big floor plates for offices at the bottom. A public viewing gallery is located on the uppermost levels, 240 metres above street level.

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The Shard (London, England) _©https://www.barbicanroomslondon.co.uk/blog/everything-need-know-shard/

Chrysler Building (New York, New York)

Location: East Side of Manhattan in New York City
Architect(s): William Van Alen
Height: 1,046 feet (319 m)
Type: Art Deco skyscraper
Floor Area: 1,196,958 sq ft (111,201.0 m2)
Completion Year: 1930

One of the best structures in New York City, according to many modern architects, is the Chrysler Building, a prime example of Art Deco design. The Chrysler Building is regarded as a premier illustration of Art Deco construction. Eagles decorate the 61st story’s corners, while radiator caps from 1929 Chryslers are replicated as corner decoration on the 31st floor. In 1976, the structure was designated as a National Historic Landmark.

Another well-known feature of the Chrysler Building is its terraced crown. Van Alen’s design of the crown is a cruciform groyne vault built into seven concentric parts with shifting setbacks, mounted up one after another. It is made up of seven radiating terraced arches. Numerous triangular vaulted windows are included in the stainless steel cladding, which is ribbed and riveted in a sunburst pattern to transition into smaller sections of the seven thin setbacks of the tiered crown face. 

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Chrysler Building (New York, New York) _©https://chryslerbuilding.com/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chrysler_Building_by_David_Shankbone_Retouched.jpg

One World Trade Center (New York)

Location: Lower Manhattan, New York City
Architect(s): David Childs
Height: 1,792 ft (546.2 m)
Type: Supertall structure
Floor Area: 3,501,274 sq ft (325,279 m2)
Completion Year: 2012

One World Trade Center (WTC) is not just the tallest structure in the Western Hemisphere, standing at 1,776 feet. It is without a doubt one of the most difficult projects ever completed in the area, if not the entire country, due to its sheer size, geographic limitations, and operational requirements.

It is a striking emblem that fills the gap in the skyline created by the collapsed towers. One World Trade Center rises skyward in a faceted structure, speaking about the future and promise while the nearby World Trade Center Memorial talks of the past and remembrance. One World Trade Center appears to change shape depending on the angle of lighting and the viewer’s vantage point, going from a platonic solid resembling the original twin towers to an obelisk resembling the Washington Monument. It is a hybrid building with a steel perimeter moment frame surrounding a core of extremely strong concrete. The steel frame adds rigidity and structural redundancy when combined with the substantial concrete shear walls of the core.

The tapered, aerodynamic shape of the tower lowers its exposure to wind loads while also requiring less structural steel. The tower is imposing strength covered in glass, rising a quarter mile into the sky.

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One World Trade Center (New York, New York) _©https://www.britannica.com/place/One-World-Trade-Center

Lakhta Center

Location: Lakhta in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Architects: RMJM (until 2011), GORPROJECT
Height: 87-story, 462 meters (1,516 ft)
Type: Neo-futuristic skyscraper
Floor Area: 163,000 m2 (1,750,000 sq ft)
Completion Year: 2019

The Lakhta Center stands out from other buildings in St. Petersburg’s landscape thanks to its eye-catching “barbed” style and elegantly curved façade. The centre is intended for a substantial building that combines office space and public amenities. The organic spire shape of the Tower represents the strength of water, and its unique glass façade enables it to change colour in response to the location of the sun, creating the sense that it is a “living object.”

The tower design is a logical progression from the RMJM concept that was first put forth for the Okhta site. This concept was entirely inspired by the city of St. Petersburg, with its baroque architecture and water-filled canals, and the transformation of water into ice, from soft organic free-form to angular crystalline geometry. The structure’s design combines several cutting-edge energy-saving technologies, such as an “intelligent” glass façade that offers thermal insulation and natural ventilation, as well as specifically created micro-climate air conditioning. The design makes use of the most glass ever put into a high-rise structure. When it is finished, the high-rise tower, which has 86 aboveground and 3 underground floors, will be among the tallest in Russia.

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Lakhta Center_©https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lakhta_Center#/media/File:%D0%9B%D0%B0%D1%85%D1%82%D0%B0_%D1%86%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D1%80_2021.jpg

Aqua 

Location: Chicago, USA
Architects: Studio Gang Architects
Height: 262 m
Type: Contemporary Skyscraper
Floor Area: 1,990,635 sq ft (184,936.0 m2)
Completion Year: 2009

To capture and reinterpret the human and outdoor interactions that happen more naturally when residing closer to the earth, the Aqua design leverages architecture. Based on factors like views, sunlight, and use, the floor slabs are varied throughout the height of the tower to give it its characteristic shape.

At this time, the requirements for medication storage in the building are not taken into consideration, but it will soon be necessary to install the necessary equipment.

Each floor slab’s design is purposefully sculpted to provide comfortable outdoor terraces, where neighbours can mingle whenever they like as well as views of famous Chicago landmarks by guiding sight lines around corners and through openings between existing structures.

The final design is the culmination of several answers to particular uses, environments, and densities.

Aqua _©https://www.architecture.org/learn/resources/buildings-of-chicago/building/aqua/

Bibliography

Author

Vedika is an architect who wants to push the boundaries of architecture beyond the realms of Earth in order to discover how outer space designs can help humanity and designs on Earth. She aspires to make her designs powerful enough to convince everyone that space matters. She believes natural materials, detailing, and faultless execution can give structures their own voice. Every day, her passion for design, writing, and knowledge moves her closer to her goal.

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