Throughout the ages, humans have been gatherers and hunters for food and is one of the most important elements to survive. With time, humans have started developing different ways of hunting and gathering And transformed them into farming crops and animals.

But eventually, the human race realised that crops and animal farming and its techniques depended on the geological position and hence the climate, ecosystem Etc, that was necessary to support Husbandry. 

With time as the human race evolved along with that also the lifestyle, consumption of food and cultural thoughts Evolved. 

Therefore, across the world, according to the geographical location and weather, the evolution of culture, clothing style, and cuisine took shape, marking its unique identity. 

The variations were fascinating as the warm tropical countries were very different from the cold areas of the world. With the evolution of these different climatic regions, the culture and heritage developed, and with it grew the modifications in food interest. And everything was connected and dependent on each other to flourish more. 

Although food and cultures evolved following geographic regions, worldwide cultural exchanges have occurred through the existence of the human race for either positive or negative causes. Either, these exchanges were mostly due to trade between different regions or Due to the growth of the idea of power and colonialism. However, Exchanges were good at times Considering the cultural and architectural exchange and cuisines adapted locally.

Tourism and Gastronomy - Sheet1
University of Bombay’s Campus the adapted style of architecture in the Indian context,1870_©–1947%29

Journey of Cuisines and Architecture 

As Civilisations came into existence and people started settling by water bodies like a River, as these water bodies were a source of food and provided fertile land for cultivation, settlements grew along the water bodies. But, with time these civilisations started trading and exchanging raw materials and food. The idea of trade has been embodied in the human race for ages now and Trade has been one of the finest factors for the exchange of food, eventually cuisines and culture.

The thought of exchange was cultivated by ancestors who were keen on trade and explorations. The Keenest of our ancestors was Christopher Columbus who was termed the explorer since he was known to have discovered a new world called “America”. By that point, trading channels had already been established, and transactions had begun. The journey of such cultural exchanges has been historic, Either people travelled to experience the architecture and the cuisines or the cuisines and architecture travelled to them through colonists, explorers and traders. The story of such a glorious exchange has been almost the same even to the present day, but the mediums have evolved. 

Today exploration of cultures, trading, adaptation of architecture and gaining knowledge of cuisines around the world, has become much easier and more convenient due to the advancement of technology and the evolution of means to exchange like the invention of the television or internet or for instance means of physical travel like an aeroplane. 

As to the thought, the mediums have changed, from the mediums being traders to any website or app today. Earlier even considering the physical means of travelling were challenging considering travel through water but as of today the time for travel has been reduced and travelling has become much easier using air.

But again, stories have always remained the same, Of cuisines or architecture either travelling to people or people travelling to them.

Tourism and Gastronomy - Sheet2
Christopher Columbus on his Expedition_©
Tourism and Gastronomy - Sheet3
Mike Horn, a famous explorer today on a plane_©

Cuisine Displacement

Food is one of the most important needs for a human being to survive. And well known, Different varieties of crops that are grown in different parts of the world according to the different climatic conditions have created different types of food eaten by people over the years. And different cuisines evolved, every cuisine had an identity of its own due to the region it came from and it is deeply embodied in the culture of that specific region. Many fascinating explorers and traders earlier bought back food that was uncommon for a particular region. Like very famously the “potato” in India, People love to add it to every dish but it was never grown here and it was first introduced in the 17th century by Portuguese sailors. And its mass cultivation was started by the Britishers. Potatoes have become an integral part of almost all dishes in India. And Indians have integrated potatoes blending them very well into the roots of their cuisines. For Instance, the “Samosa” or a Dish of every household in India like “Aloo Jeera sabzi”. 

Tourism and Gastronomy - Sheet4
Famous daily Household Dish In India, “Aloo jeera sabzi” also called “Cumin Potatoes”_©

Over Time, Cuisines are not anymore only a meagre diet choice to the region and people it belonged to but have travelled far and wide all over. Now, for example, anyone sitting in Italy can enjoy authentic Indian food, despite its originating in India. 

This is likely a crucial role that globalization has had in fostering cross-cultural interactions. 

Another enthralling role these cross-cultural exchanges played is, cuisines were adapted and amalgamated to the roots of another culture. Naan became “Naan Bread”, tea became “Chai tea”, and “Chicken Tikka Masala” became the national Dish of Britain, pasta started to be uptaken seriously as masala pasta in India, and countless exchanges happened throughout history.

Now, this world has become such a good blend of all anticipated cuisines from all over. And, it feels like “how small the world has become”. 

Tourism and expedition into different cultures, cuisines, and architecture have transformed to be an activity within the snap of one’s fingers.

Tourism and Gastronomy - Sheet5
A well-known adapted and transformed way of consuming pasta from Italy, in India_©

The Future of Tourism and Cuisines 

Tourism through the years has become not only defined by travelling and experiencing the food, culture and architecture and escaping monotonous life on a holiday, but it has become much more than that. It has become a full-time job for many and opened doors for opportunities not living with a 9 to 5 job. 

Tourism has become like a trailer of a movie or blurb of an interesting book, through the media. Because, it’s now a market which has been easier to flourish due to the advancement of science, technology and social media. 

Places, are promoted through visuals, and these visuals, due to the fast pace growth of Social media, have the potential to reach out to people across the world in no time.

The potential of such advertising has led to people wanting more to experience those places by physical visit. And thus, it has resulted in the flourishing of the tourism Industry.

The Tourism industry, however, comprises not only the food industry but also the mode of transport (the travel agencies), the hospitality industry of the place, etc. But, it has been able to generate occupation and profit for many sectors and has helped many Places to survive by taking it as a source. 

With time, the tourism sector and social media have provided immense opportunities for individuals and professionals to grow in knowledge, exchange and profit from it. It has not only been beneficial to them but also has been advantageous to the common masses all over, to learn new things, exchange qualities and explore the world without even stepping foot physically, which otherwise might be costly for many. 

Globalisation has added to bringing all the experiences of Cuisine and culture even to the commons everywhere around the globe. And the acceptance that has come along paid off.

A sweet example of it is the modified style of street food enjoyed in India now instead of the typical samosa or so-called “Desi snacks”. 

The definition of street food has changed forever for many countries. 

And with the years to come it is likely to blend in more, with the increase of acceptance, fascination and social media will play a huge part in it.

Doner Kebab of Turkey becoming a famous street food for Germany_©


  1. Alexandra Villing, M. S. (2015) Ceramics, Cuisine and Culture The Archaeology and Science of Kitchen Pottery in the Ancient Mediterranean World. Oxford, England: Oxbow Books.
  2. Antunes, F. T. L. H. (2014) Religion and Trade: Cross-cultural Exchanges in World History, 1000–1900. New York: Oxford University Press.
  1. Civitello, L. (2011) Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons (WIE).
  2. Goody, J. (1982) Cooking, Cuisine and Class: A Study in Comparative Sociology. Cambridge, TAS, Australia: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Ishige, N. (2019) “The History of Food Culture Exchange for Long-term Periods: Japan as an Example,” Senri Ethnological Studies, 11(22), p. 100.
  4. Timothy, D. J. (2016) Heritage Cuisines: Traditions, identities and tourism. New York, NY: Routledge.
  5. Vossner, P. (no date) Panerai PAM719 Mike Horn Pole2Pole Edition, Senatus. Available at: (Accessed: August 8, 2023).

Nabaneeta is a Researcher in the field of Building Adaptation to climate change, working on assessment of carbon footprint and carbon emissions. A highly motivated individual to express and create consciousness amongst everyone for climate change. A dedicated individual to express the urgency. She is also a very enthusiastic individual to grow and learn and incorporate different ideas on a variety of subjects.