Several architectural features have been as significant and enduring as Neoclassical Architecture.  This particular form, which arose in the centre of Europe throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries, continues to fascinate archaeologists, planners, and enthusiasts alike.
Neoclassicism, which originated in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, was intimately connected with enlightened principles and pioneer archaeologists’ empirical research.

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CHIJMES is a historic building complex in Singapore’s Central Business District_(Photo credit: Matthew6)

The reverence for ancient styles and ideals aided the revival of Neoclassical architecture. Architects drew inspiration from the symmetry, proportion, and grandeur of classical forms in Greek and Roman antiquity. These ancient ideas influenced the Neoclassical style, emphasizing the concepts of logic, order, and civic virtue while imbuing the structure with a sense of timelessness and collective authority. Its resurgence emphasized the importance of ancient wisdom, impacting not just architecture but also wider historical and cultural settings.

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West facade of Petit Trianon_(Source: )

Today, we begin a historical trip to investigate the origins, progress, and lasting importance of Neoclassical architecture.

A Rediscovery of Neoclassicism

The time saw the return of a significant curiosity in ancient antiquities, resulting in the emergence of ‘neo-classicism,’ which implies the revival or replication of past forms. 

In addition to the Pantheon, the Colosseum, and Vatican City, neoclassical architecture drew heavily from ancient sites. Pompeii and Herculaneum, ancient Roman settlements that were discovered during this period, stand out as examples of the independence of Greece from Ottoman Turkey during this time.

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NeoClassical Architecture (Photo Credit: Chesnot//Getty Images)
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Pompeii and Herculaneum, ancient Roman settlements (Photo Credit: Getty Images)

The Birth of a New Classic: 18th Century Europe

Its history begins during the European Renaissance. A growing interest in ancient antiquity, typified by the magnificence of the Greek and Roman empires, resulted in the formation of ‘Neo-Classicism.’ Simply translated as “new classic,” this name embodied the core of this new style: a resurrection and reconceptualization of historic aesthetic value.

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Neoclassical Architecture: 18th Century_(PHOTO BYJOE DANIEL PRICE / GETTY IMAGES)

As a result of the impact created by Greek and Roman constructions such as the Pantheon, Colosseum, and Vatican City, new generations of designers decided to revive them. The architectural environment was even more influenced by simultaneous movements such as Greek independence from Ottoman Turkey and the archaeological discovery of ancient towns like Pompeii and Herculaneum.

A view of one of Italy’s greatest works of Neoclassical Architecture, the Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome. (Source:

The Transition to Modernism: 20th Century

As we moved into the twentieth century, the story of classical architecture transformed once again. During the rise of Modernism, classical architecture underwent a dramatic shift, becoming not only another revival but a new art form as well.
There is no doubt that Neoclassical architecture remains an enduring attraction and has had a tremendous impact on the architectural world for centuries. Neoclassical architecture paints a vivid picture of architectural invention, reinterpretation, and evolution, regardless of whether it is viewed from the perspective of symmetry or simplicity.

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Ad-Dhawah Quator, Private House (Photo by Archello)

Characteristics of Neoclassical Architecture:

  • Scale grandeur
  • Symmetry
  • Exact proportions
  • Geometrical and classical shapes’ simplicity
  • Bleak exteriors,
  • Minimalist or no embellishment
  • The temple’s front facade ( An array of evenly spaced columns capped by Pediment)
  • Ionic, Doric, and Corinthian columns are examples of Greek and Roman orders.
  • Use of Domes and Pediments
  • Marble and Bronze statues and friezes
  • Coffered ceilings
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Temple is the ideal for Neoclassical architecture_(©
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Series of Columns (Photo Credit: Getty Images)
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Neoclassical roofs were flat with centred domes (Credit: Corbis via Getty Images)
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Simpicity of Basilica in Baltimore_(Photo by Robert C; Source: Tripadvisior)

Neoclassical architecture in different regions

Neoclassical Architecture in Europe

San Francesco di Paola

  • Building: San Francesco di Paola
  • Function/Use: Piaza, Church
  • Location: Piazza del Plebiscito, Naples, Italy
  • Date of construction: 1809-1846
  • Architect: Pietro Bianchi, Leopoldo Laperuta
  • Historical Influence:  Greek Architecture, Roman Architecture
  • Key Features: Naples has a large and impressive public square.
  • Façade: The Imperial House and the San Francesco di Paola church, which has a dome and side chapels, surround the square. The church’s symmetry adds width and symmetry to the Piazza.
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San Francesco di Paola Church, Italy  (Source: ITALYscapes)

Neoclassical architecture in the United States

United States Capitol

  • Neoclassical Architecture
  • Building: United States Capitol/The Capital/Capital Building
  • Function/Use: Seat of the legislative branch of the U.S Government
  • Location: Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C.
  • Date of construction: 1793–1800; -1800; Last extension in 1962
  • Architect: William Thornton
  • Historical Influence: Roman, Greek, and Renaissance Architecture
  • A stunning façade with symmetry and harmony that offers visual interest. balance.
  • Façade: The Neoclassical-style Capitol features lush gardens, pathways, roadways, drives, plantations, and statues. Its iconic architecture features a raised platform, columns, colonnades, windows, staircases, arches, a cornice, and a dignified dome.
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United States Capitol_(Photo Credit: STEFAN ZAKLIN/GETTY IMAGES )
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Interio of United States Capitol (Source:

Neoclassical architecture in Asia

The National Museum Of China, Beijing, China

  • Building: National Museum of China
  • Function/Use: The National Museum of China serves as a cultural institution that collects, displays, and educates about the art and history of China. It is one of the largest and most visited museums in the world.
  • Location: The museum is located on the east side of Tiananmen Square, in the heart of Beijing, China.
  • Date of construction: Established in 2003, the museum merged two 1959-built museums and underwent renovations and expansions from 2004 to 2010.
  • Architect: Zhang Kaiji and Liang Sicheng were Chinese architects, while Gerkan, Marg, and Partners expanded.
  • Historical Influence: The National Museum of China’s design combines Chinese architectural traditions with aspects of contemporary architecture. Its imposing exterior, which has a massive central entrance and symmetrical wings on either side, is reminiscent of classic Chinese palace architecture, exuding power and majesty.
  • Key Features: The museum is almost 200,000 square meters in size and has 48 exhibition halls. It has a stunning front overlooking Tiananmen Square, China’s symbolic political centre. The design incorporates a lot of symmetry and axiality, which are classic Chinese architectural ideals. The museum’s collections include anything from ancient artefacts to objects from the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the creation of modern China.
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The National Museum Of China, Beijing, China (Source:

Asiatic Society of Mumbai Town Hall, Mumbai

  • Building: Asiatic Society of Mumbai Town Hall
  • Function/Use: The Asiatic Society of Mumbai is an educational society that houses a library and serves as a research centre. It’s one of the oldest public libraries in the city, with a vast collection of books, coins, maps, and artefacts.
  • Location: The society is situated in the heart of Mumbai, in the Fort area.
  • Date of construction: Building construction began in 1803 and finished in 1830.
  • Architect: Colonel Cowper designed and constructed the building.
  • Historical Influence: The architecture of the Asiatic Society of Mumbai Town Hall reflects neoclassical Greek style, reflecting colonial-era architecture heavily influenced by European styles. It was envisioned as a ‘temple of Minerva,’ the Roman goddess of wisdom.
  • The Town Hall’s main architectural highlights include 30 steps leading up to its portico, which is supported by 8 huge Doric columns. The façade has a triangular pediment with George IV’s Coat of Arms. The Durbar Hall is a two-story edifice with a coffered ceiling on the inside. Several rare manuscripts in Persian, Sanskrit, and Prakrit, as well as a collection of historic coins and artefacts, make the library a treasure trove for academics and historians.
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Asiatic Society of Mumbai Town Hall (Source:


Ultimately, Neoclassical architecture is significant because it combines elements from numerous times, civilizations, and art forms to produce an altogether new design based on both past and contemporary inspirations. These structures are certainly gorgeous – regardless of scale, they are a wonderful sight to see. The outcome of these undertakings is always well worth the work required to complete them, regardless of how lengthy the process takes. From their genesis period to the current modern society we live in, the attractiveness of these structures never appears to wane. Its appeal may be traced in large part to the eternal nature of every neoclassical construction. These monuments are irrefutable proof of humankind’s creativity’s evolution and improvement, transcending barriers and surpassing our biggest thoughts and aspirations – really astonishing!


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Isha chaudhary (4th year architecture student at Dayal Bagh educational institute, from Agra, U.P. India) enjoys writing from different genres and wants to explore and enhance the knowledge in architecture. She believes writing expresses the emotions of architectural buildings and creates the impacts in readers mind .