In the northeastern part of the North China plains lies a prosperous city that goes by the name Tangshan. For an outsider, it paints a happy picture of development, wealth, and success. Even so, the Tangshan as we see today is a far cry from the Tangshan that a few of its older residents would describe from their memories. The Tangshan of today is not the same that woke up to the screams and cries of helpless people who lost their loved ones to the horrific incidents of 28th July 1976.

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Tangshan,China_© https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/galeri-cinin-ekonomileri-ulkelerle-yarisan-35-sehri-40675943

The story of Tangshan is one of strength, bravery, vision, patience, and immense determination.

The Event 

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The 1976 Tangshan earthquake _©https://www.livescience.com/33316-top-10-deadliest-natural-disasters.html

Even before 1976, Tangshan was a prominent industrial and mining city that was an important contributor to the Chinese economy. However, the environment that prevailed at Tangshan was believed to be outdated and unsustainable. Despite China having a strong history of earthquakes, most residences and industrial buildings in Tangshan were unreinforced masonry structures with weak foundations. This, when paired with the narrow streets and poorly planned land-use system, became a recipe for disaster.

The tragedy occurred in the form of a 7.5 magnitude earthquake, a few hours before dawn on that fateful day. About 85-90% of the buildings collapsed without a fight, leaving behind an estimated 242,000 lifeless bodies under its debris. In the blink of an eye, Tangshan lost everything, from their loved ones, homes, jobs, to even the most basic utilities. Most of the infrastructure and agricultural lands were destroyed by soil liquefaction, surface cracks, and flooding. At the end of one of the deadliest disasters in recorded history, the city of Tangshan was staring at a long path towards recovery. 

Restoration and Development

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Tangshan before the earthquake_© https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/363185197

The Tangshan Recovery Master Plan(1976) was approved 10 months after the disaster. It proposed to reinvent Tangshan as one of the safest and most advanced cities in the world. A team of 100 Architects, engineers, and other designers came together to assess the geological conditions and feasibility of proposed development projects. The Plan addressed issues like temporary and permanent housing, services, infrastructure development projects, land use, relocation, pollution, etc. However, China was in the midst of a cultural revolution that added to their financial struggles. The budget allocated towards realizing these plans failed to meet the demands and resulted in the project getting delayed. During this period, the public started to get restless and the helpless contractors were reportedly compromising on the quality of their work to meet the overwhelming time and budget restrictions. 

The year 1982 saw the administration make amendments to the Recovery Plan and effectively shift to a more pragmatic approach. Permanent housing and essential services were prioritized while some development projects were scaled down. There were major changes in the land use pattern while also reducing relocation. 

The completion of housing projects in 1986 was a major relief for the public. The new residential area was divided into sectors which comprised of mid-rise dwellings and had their own business, educational, cultural, and sanitary infrastructure. 

The new Tangshan had large, green open spaces, better transportation, good quality buildings, a strong network of services, less pollution, etc. It had a modern outlook and an increased potential that placed them above some of the neighboring cities that still relied on outdated infrastructure. 

Tangshan Post-recovery

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Tangshan railway station_© https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%94%90%E5%B1%B1%E9%A7%85

The new-look Tangshan had now built a foundation that enabled them to capitalize on the socio-economic reforms that took place in China during the 1980s and 1990s. The events that followed saw them become the financial powerhouses of the Hebei province and the cradle of Chinese industrialization. Tangshan has pioneered many significant events in the history of China. They beat their competitors in mechanized coal mining, mechanized cement production, sanitary ceramic production, standard gauge railways, steam locomotives, etc. 

The massive economic growth fueled further infrastructural development and the emergence of new districts. The outstanding efforts of Tangshan and China were also recognized by the United Nations in 1990.

A Case Study for others

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It is important for the society to rebuild itself_© https://www.habitat.org/our-work/disaster-response/programs

The success story of Tangshan also contains important lessons on the subject of seismic-safe construction and other ways to prepare for such extreme scenarios.

  1. It was through the combined efforts of its people, with significant support from their neighboring provinces and the central administration, that Tangshan was able to get back on its feet. 
  2. The first step while restoring the city was to establish access and services. This was useful while handing over the houses as the residents didn’t have to worry about anything else. 
  3. They also strategically started construction along the periphery of the city, before dealing with the ruins. 
  4. The entire process became significantly faster with the use of standard structural members, which were easy to mass-produce.
  5. Finally, satellite towns were constructed in appropriate locations to be used in the event of a similar calamity. 

Tangshan Now

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Anti-seismic Monument_© https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202007/1194225.shtml

Even today, Tangshan is making relentless efforts to aid its urban renewal and rise to the top-tier of developed cities. Tangshan is constantly trying to transform into a more green and innovative place by hosting competitions and inviting talented designers. They have also succeeded in incorporating tourism into a primarily industrial city by building new tourism islands and districts. The Anti-seismic monument, the royal tombs of the Qing dynasty, the great wall central peak, Jing Zhong Mountain, Cao Xueqin park, Caofeidian wetland park, Tangshan Nanhu park, Luan ancient city, etc. are other important landmarks and tourist destinations in Tangshan. 

The Tangshan of today is a reflection of all the loyal and brave people who decided to stay back and re-build their home. It is a city that refuses to rest on past accolades and aims to become its best form. From a position of despair, Tangshan turned its fortune around and became one of the most powerful cities in China, much like the Phoenix bird it is often compared to. 

References

  1. Rafferty, J.P. (2018). Tangshan earthquake of 1976 | China. In: Encyclopædia Britannica. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/event/Tangshan-earthquake-of-1976.
  2. Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). Tangshan | China. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/place/Tangshan#ref1001035 [Accessed 29 Aug. 2021].
  3. Zixing, W., Xifu, C. and Keren, L. (n.d.). CHAPTER 6: EARTHQUAKE RELIEF AND RECONSTRUCTION OF TANGSHAN DISASTER RELIEF AFTER THE TANGSHAN EARTHQUAKE. [online] . Available at: https://authors.library.caltech.edu/26539/1/Tangshan/Volume3_Chapter_6.pdf.
  4. Measures to Resume and Rebuild Tangshan. (1996). Post-Earthquake Rehabilitation and Reconstruction, [online] pp.209–218. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080428253500247 [Accessed 29 Aug. 2021].
  5. Zhang, Y., Zhang, C., Drake, W. and Olshansky, R. (2014). Planning and Recovery Following the Great 1976 Tangshan Earthquake. Journal of Planning History, 14(3), pp.224–243.
  6. Anon, (n.d.). Tangshan earthquake, 1976 | DisasterHistory.org. [online] Available at: https://disasterhistory.org/tangshan-earthquake-1976.
  7. the Guardian. (2008). Phoenix city Tangshan wins battle for life after devastation. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/may/26/chinaearthquake.china1 [Accessed 29 Aug. 2021].
  8. www.globaltimes.cn. (n.d.). Urban planning competition seeks to revive old industrial city – Global Times. [online] Available at: https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202104/1221186.shtml [Accessed 29 Aug. 2021].
  9. History.com Editors (2018). Worst modern earthquake. [online] HISTORY. Available at: https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/worst-modern-earthquake.
  10. www.youtube.com. (n.d.). Tangshan Travel Guide | Travel Guide China. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MB_Dc_2yA5g [Accessed 29 Aug. 2021].
  1. www.youtube.com. (n.d.). Tángshān Tangshan city wants to show you more than this! [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VGqm6-R9Skk [Accessed 29 Aug. 2021].
Author

Avneeth Premarajan is a practicing Architect and an ardent “student” of Architecture. He is intrigued by concepts, ideas, philosophy, evolution and geography of design. He is more than willing to give up a few hours of day-dreaming to write about his thoughts.

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