The subject of climate change defines our time, and we need a global response to reverse it. The climate crisis, a term or expression that describes the impacts of global warming and climate change, can range from rising surface air temperatures to increasing global sea levels, which may result in catastrophic flooding. Without immediate action now, future adaptation to the effects of climate change will become more permanent and move more quickly than researchers had initially projected. Thus, to significantly and permanently eradicate the climate crisis, all countries must find cost-effective actions to slow climate change and reduce the atmospheric buildup of greenhouse gases.  

Global responses to the climate crisis, including international agreements and initiatives - Sheet1
Climate Crisis_©Sky News

Mitigation and Adaptation

Global responses to the climate crisis, including international agreements and initiatives - Sheet2
The difference between Mitigation and Adaptation_©SEED

There are two common types of responses to climate change: mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation refers to reducing impacts caused by climate change. For example, it entails improving sustainability, lowering greenhouse gas emissions and increasing the capacity to control future mean global temperature rises. Meanwhile, adaptation refers to adapting to the climate crisis; it anticipates the consequences of climate change, acting appropriately to minimise the potential damage it might bring. 

Global responses to the climate crisis, including international agreements and initiatives - Sheet3
Ethiopia Reforestation Project_©BBC News

One sensible case study from Ethiopia that uses mitigation and adaptation strategies suggests a proposal to regenerate their forests by creating a “carbon sink”, which absorbs greenhouse gases emitted from human activities. For 30 years, the predicted target is that over 870,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide will be removed from the atmosphere. Additionally, the reforestation project has shown reduced land degradation, soil erosion and flash flooding, deeming it a project with great potential ahead.

Frameworks and Protocols | Climate crisis

Global responses to the climate crisis, including international agreements and initiatives - Sheet4
Newspaper excerpt about the Kyoto Protocol_©The Japan Times

In response to this crisis, there have been global efforts to address this issue, including international agreements, national policies and local actions. As a first step in tackling the climate change issue, the “Earth Summit” in 1992 resulted in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  Countries began negotiating in 1995 to improve the global response to climate change and the Kyoto Protocol was established two years later, imposing strict legal obligations on developed nation Parties to reduce their emissions. 

Following the Kyoto Protocol in 2015, a historic agreement to battle climate change and to speed up and intensify the actions and investments required for a sustainable low-carbon future was made by Parties to the UNFCCC at the 21st Conference of the Parties in Paris. The Paris Agreement builds on the Kyoto Protocol and, for the first time, unites all countries in the fight against climate change and adaptation to its impacts, with increased funding for helping developing nations do so. As a result, it plots a new course for the campaign to combat global warming.

Global responses to the climate crisis, including international agreements and initiatives - Sheet5
Climate crisis-The Paris Agreement Goals_©Yale Sustainability

In relation to the Paris Agreement, the IPCC published a special study on the effects of 1.5°C global warming (The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) in October 2018. The study concluded that all facets of society must undergo quick, significant, and unheard-of adjustments to keep global warming below 1.5°C. A more sustainable and fair society might be achieved by keeping global warming at 1.5°C instead of 2°C with advantages for both humans and natural ecosystems.  According to this analysis, many of the negative effects of climate change will begin to manifest with a temperature increase of 1.5°C, as opposed to earlier projections that concentrated on calculating the harm at a 2°C increase in average temperatures.

Strategies to Consider in Tackling Climate Change

Global responses to the climate crisis, including international agreements and initiatives - Sheet6
Climate crisis-Ways to tackle Climate Change ©Horsham District
  1. 1. Recognise that the threat posed by climate change is both obvious and growing.
  2. 2. Find cost-effective actions that may be performed right away to help reduce net global greenhouse gas emissions significantly and permanently. 
  3. 3. Recognise that delaying action would likely result in higher costs and a higher likelihood of negative environmental repercussions. 
  4. 4. Work with developing countries to develop the scientific and technical capabilities that are most appropriate for their conditions, allowing them to devise creative ways to lessen and adapt to the negative consequences of climate change while clearly respecting their legal development rights. 
  5. 5. Take the lead in creating and implementing clean energy technology and energy efficiency strategies, and impart this expertise to all other countries. 
  6. 6. Encourage the advancement of research and development activities so that choices on climate change are better informed.

Conclusion | Climate crisis

Climate crisis-Climate Change Activism ©Pew Research Center

Developing countries will be disproportionately impacted since they lack the infrastructure and resources to address the effects of climate change. There is little doubt that many of the world’s poorest citizens will undoubtedly experience the worst effects of climate change. Long-term attempts on a global scale to build a more wholesome, affluent and sustainable society may need to be improved by climate change. Hence, developing and implementing adaptation strategies to deal with the effects of climate change will require global collaboration inputs from a wide range of experts.


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  3. Global panel of scientists publish their latest verdict on the climate crisis and how we must respond (2023) Climate Action. European Commission. Available at: (Accessed: May 3, 2023).
  4. Greenwood, S. (2022) In response to climate change, citizens in advanced economies are willing to alter how they live and work, Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project. Pew Research Center. Available at: (Accessed: May 2, 2023).
  5. International Action on Climate Change (2023) Climate Change Committee. Climate Change Committee. Available at: (Accessed: May 2, 2023).
  6. Responses to Climate Change (no date) Historic England. Historic England. Available at:,are%20already%2C%20or%20will%20occur. (Accessed: May 2, 2023).
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Audrey Kianjaya is a graduate architect and urban planner who is currently pursuing a career as an architectural researcher and writer. She aspires to make a positive impact through her writing and design, earning her project the title of “People’s Choice” from the Regen Dining Competition held in 2020.