From carving spaces to crafting spaces, caves to skyscrapers, humans have evolved their shelters since the beginning of time. Like a tree that grows from its shoot and root system simultaneously, advanced building technologies have kept moving forward while steadily taking a toll on the natural environment. 

The demographic of people living on this planet has been rigorously shaken and altered since the Covid-19 pandemic of the year, 2020, followed by war situations and climate issues. The future of architecture now depends on rational choices made by practicing architects.

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City windows, urban architecture_©Bárbara Cascão from Pixabay

Evolution of Cities and Architecture:

The present population explosion of humankind is a major factor in shaping the built environments of the future. With the ever-increasing cost of living and the urge to upgrade their lifestyle, most people are deserting the countryside and immigrating to metropolitan cities. Highlighting the situation of metropolitan cities booming with businesses, inviting people from all walks of life, tall buildings over horizontal settlements are preferred, parallelly giving rise to thousands of projects for redevelopment. Depending on the floor space index of different states and countries, urban areas have varying densities. This difference plays a pivotal role in determining the urban fabric of a city.

The increase in global temperature and stark disturbances in the climate has worsened the urban heat island effect in cities since the last decade. As a result, planning for greenfield projects that reflect the desire to create harmony with the existing natural reserves and protected areas has begun in several nations. The idea of a self-sufficient city is already being experimented with by Ar. Vincente Guallart of Spain. Another example is Toyota’s Woven City, is a test city for the future. 

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Overhead Courtyard_©

Conscious Designing of the Present for an Upgraded Future:

  1. The future of architecture explicitly depends on popularizing the use of eco-friendly materials, building technologies, and maintenance systems that are sustainable and have a low impact on nature while integrating passive design elements that help keep the micro-climate of the buildings’ interiors pleasant.
  2. In the last few years, there has been an increase in the development of biophilic designs. It is, designing for people as biological organisms, respecting the mind-body systems as indicators of health and well-being in the context of what is locally appropriate and responsive. An example of biophilic designs is, Édouard François’s latest plant-clad building rises in Nice, France, that help to purge the CO2 emissions from the air. 
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    Extensive greenery is a signature for Édouard François. Exterior walls are clad with plantings that over time will grow to form a massive vertical garden_©Maison Edouard Francois

    There is a growing rate of natural calamities along with war-like situations across the planet, which has compelled architects to come up with prefabricated housing and mass housing solutions and create structures that are damage-proof and resilient, which would be able to withstand calamities at a primary level. The war-struck Ukraine is gearing up to create a new future of architecture and is getting some humanitarian aid from the government in the form of new construction technology using 3D printing, to speed the recovery of buildings lost to the war. This project is proposed to begin with the construction of schools. 

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    A 3D-printed school in the Ukrainian city of Lviv is the first there built by builders, engineers and architects working with humanitarian group Team4UA_©Team4UA

    Adaptive reuse of buildings has been a popular approach towards retaining historical buildings. Instead of constructing a new structure and further adding to the pollution of the environment, renovation of buildings is favored and will continue to play a definitive role in the future of architecture; the massive government buildings, spaces that hold cultural and economic significance, workplaces, etc which are a tangible part of the woven urban fabric are retained and reused.

  2. Universal designs which are inclusive to people with disabilities, and spaces that do not discriminate on intangible human adjectives, are now making their way and will continue to grow. This factor stands important because societies are progressing, with it every individual would be rightful to have access to spaces with equal honor and ease, without the need to be dependent on another individual and without being shamed or shunned.

The incoming age of AI-integrated Architectural Designs:

Tools based on artificial intelligence have gushed into various industries running the world with architecture. Along with BIM, AI tools that are undergoing upgradation every coming day are already making an impact and creating their niche in the AEC industry. The hybrid work models at workplaces that developed post-pandemic can be expected to be mimicked in larger proportions in the coming future, allowing architects to asses building information by working from anywhere in the world. 3D printing materials could be further researched to making them sustainable, to adhere to the laws of nature and can be more likely to be used in models and prototypes along with buildings. 

VR for Architecture_©

Architecture to attempt retrieving the unbalanced state of Earth’s environment:

With the increasing awareness of decreasing hopes for the longevity of Earth, architects will need to step up and take on the key role, to help create minimum distress to the planet and its ecological systems. It will be crucial to hold hands with governments and powerful people to create new advancements and contribute to rules and execute a future of architecture that is livable for future generations, along with the ongoing movement of creating advanced future possibilities in virtual realities.


  1. Heilmeyer, Florian. (2022, January 18). In France, a New Neighborhood Is Part of the Adjacent Park—or Is it the Other Way Around?. Metropolis. Retrieved from: In France, a New Neighborhood Is Part of the Adjacent Park—or Is it the Other Way Around? – Metropolis (
  2. Dejtiar, Fabian. (2020, August 13). Vicente Guallart Wins Self-Sufficient City Competition for Post-Coronavirus China. Arch Daily. Retrieved from: Vicente Guallart Wins Self-Sufficient City Competition for Post-Coronavirus China | ArchDaily
  3. Sgambati III, Joseph P. (2023, July 23). Ukraine’s Rebuilding Plans Include 3D-Printed Schools. Metropolis. Retrieved from: Ukraine’s Rebuilding Plans Include 3D-Printed Schools – Metropolis (

Citations for websites:

  1. 14 PATTERNS OF BIOPHILIC DESIGN (2014). 14 PATTERNS OF BIOPHILIC DESIGN,Improving Health & Well-Being in the Built Environment [online]. (Last updated 2014). Available at: [Accessed 4 August 2023].

Citations for images/photographs – Print or Online:

  1. Cascão, Bárbara. (2020). City, Window, Architecture image. [Photograph]. (city-g802aa3983_1920, Brasil: Pixabay).
  2. Toyota Motor Corporation Official Global Website. (2020). Overhead Courtyard. [Photograph]. (20200107_01_04_s, US:
  3.  Maison Edouard Francois (2022). Extensive greenery. [Photograph]. (WEARECONTENTS_MEF-LE-RAY-DSC03108_ergebnis-684×1024, France:
  4. Balbek Bureau. (2023). The Lviv Primary School in Ukraine is being entirely 3D printed in a process that takes months off of construction time. [Photograph]. (3D-PRINTING-TECHNOLOGY2, Poland: Team4UA).
  5. Daniilvolkov.(2018). Young confident Caucasian male architect working on a private house project in the office using augmented reality glasses. [Photograph]. (VRforArchitecture_1640x894, Location:

Citations for YouTube videos:

  1. DW Documentary. (2022). Future cities: Urban planners get creative, DW Documentary. [YouTube video]. Available at: [Accessed 3 August 2023].
  2. Woven City. (2023). Making of Woven City – two years since the groundbreaking ceremony. [YouTube video]. Available at: [Accessed 3 August 2023].
  3. ArchDaily. (2023). What Is the Future of the Home? Live Discussion With Next Generation of Architects. [YouTube video]. Available at: [Accessed 3 August 2023].
  4. The B1M. (2022). China’s Skyscraper Boom is Officially Over. [YouTube video]. Available at: [Accessed 3 August 2023].
  5. Gaurav Thakur. (2022). Why INDIA Doesn’t Have SKYSCRAPERS Like Other Countries? [YouTube video]. Available at: [Accessed 3 August 2023].
  6. ArchDaily. (2022). Sustainability, A.I., and the Future of Construction in India: An Interview with Amit Gupta [YouTube video]. Available at: [Accessed 3 August 2023].



Rutuja is an inquisitive architect and a sustainability enthusiast; she loves to decipher the languages of built spaces and takes an interest in storytelling through photographs and poetries.