Technology and continued advancements in technology have paved the way for design and architecture in the contemporary world. They have aided designers to better realize their ideas into actuality within shorter periods of time and with more ease. Where individual drawings would take weeks to complete, computer-aided design software has allowed architects to achieve complex design layouts, illustrations, and renders of building perspectives, virtual models of the building and its spaces, etc. in much swifter ways.
It has completely reshaped the approach to design, with the development of computational design methodologies, advanced tools for analysis of site conditions, analysis of a building’s performance, etc. it has allowed the architect and the client both complete clarity in their vision and made achieving them possible.

3D Printing seeks to be another game-changer. The idea of creating an actual, 3d object from a digital data file enticed people from all industries. The possibilities seemed endless. With extensive applications in various fields, architecture seemed to be a front-runner to embrace this new technology. Once its potential for detailed model making was realized, the benefits it offers over conventional model-making techniques; many architecture firms have begun to use 3D printed models to demonstrate their designs. The level of detail and precision achieved to allow the clients to view the project at a smaller scale and make informed decisions moving forward. It began as a cost-intensive technique, but with its growing popularity and ubiquity; it is becoming more and more approachable for architects and even students of architecture to experiment with.

Shaping Future Cities: 3D Printing and Architecture - Sheet1 World’s first 3D printed footbridge, 12m long and 1.75m wide in Madrid, Spain
Source: 3D Insider

3D models for representation are using this technology on a smaller, simpler scale. Using 3D printing and architecture as a construction process; having a whole structure printed through digital data files is what this technology has true potential for. It is still soon to comment on its validity, but experiments with the idea have created a new buzz and opened up a whole new world of possibilities. Ambitious projects envision complete structures printed using this technology, various combinations of materials, technologies, etc are being used to achieve this.
A project, The Landscape House, envisioned as an endless strip with no beginning or end was conceived as a design inspired by the mathematical concept of the Mobius Strip. The architect, Janjaap Ruijssenaars wanted to use 3D printing for construction because he saw it as a seamless and organic process, which further echoed the overall design philosophy. While the execution of the design ultimately consists of 3D printed formwork which will be filled with fiber reinforced concrete, which is not exactly a completely 3D printed building, it is an advancement towards the same.

Shaping Future Cities: 3D Printing and Architecture - Sheet2 The Landscape House by Universe Architects

Another project, the ProtoHouse by Softkill Design is a conceptual house designed to explore 3D printing as a technique, the basic principle is derived from ‘bone structure’. The form of the building was created using an algorithm with mimic’s bone growth and deposits material along stress lines creating an intricate webbed structure. The structure will be printed in parts and each part will be shipped to the site and assembled on site.

Shaping Future Cities: 3D Printing and Architecture - Sheet3 An interior view of the model for ProtoHouse by Softkill Designs.

In recent years, there have been several successful strides to achieve completely 3D printed buildings. The Dutch studio, DUS Architects have printed an eight sq. meter cabin using sustainable bioplastics called Urban Cabin. While not the most ideal living space due to its limited space, the project successfully illustrates the potential of 3D printing for short-term relief structures, temporary housings, etc. The design further promotes sustainability by using bio-plastics which enable the user to completely shred the structure after use and re-use the material to print another form. The design of the structure has angled protrusions along the walls which offer structural stability along with form-optimization.

Shaping Future Cities: 3D Printing and Architecture - Sheet4 Urban Cabin with an exterior 3D printed bathtub, by DUS Architects

Another such project is by engineering firm Arup and architecture studio, Architetti who have used a portable robot to 3D print a concrete house. The 100 sq. meter house consists of a living area, bedroom, bathroom, and kitchen and was printed within one week in Piazza Cesare in Milan. While there are several ongoing projects using 3D printing for prototype dwelling units, “The Office of the Future”, a completely 3D printed office in Dubai is exploring the commercial viability of 3D printed structures as well. The entire structure was constructed using a cement printer, the assembled-on site; taking only 19 days for printing and assemblage. With a significant decrease in labor costs, material costs due to wastage, construction time periods, the Office- the first fully-functional and inhabited built the structure using 3D printing is truly a marvel of design and engineering.

Shaping Future Cities: 3D Printing and Architecture - Sheet5 Concrete house in Milan

Shaping Future Cities: 3D Printing and Architecture - Sheet6 Interior of Concrete printed house
Source:  Sheet7Office Building – 3D printed, Dubai

 Sheet8Assembling of printed parts on site

The advancement and growth of 3D printing as a means of construction is the culmination of the post-industrial revolution ideal of modularity and machine manufacturing. It is the final step towards achieving a fully automated construction process driven by machines and minimal human input. With an ever-growing database of 3D models, further development towards this could see the complete removal of the middle man. Printing structures would only require the data files and the printer. From small dwelling units to office spaces to full-scale urban blocks; the true possibilities with this technology are yet to be realized, we have just scratched the surface and it will be very interesting to see how this methodology could shape our future cities.


Asis Kaur, a student of Architecture with an inquisitive outlook, striving to curate her jumble of constant thoughts and ideas of architecture into a succinct composition.