Modernism refers to a broad movement in Western art, architecture, and design that consciously rejects the past as a model for modern art and emphasizes formal qualities in artwork, craftsmanship, and materials.
The more interesting part, however, is how the cultural and sociological shifts of the early 1900s shaped architecture and urban design. Modernism coincided with the collapse of old power structures, the emergence of democracy in many places, the emancipation of women, the improvement of workers’ rights, and the improvement of the living conditions of the masses who gathered in the dilapidated slums of the cities. A huge wave of migration to the industrial centre of the city.
The modern style has simple forms, visually expressive structures, abstract decorations and functions because the building massing has a strong rational basis. Modernism redefines the aesthetic of architecture, valuing clarity and emphasizing the philosophy of “less is more” in appearance and detail.
A modern city is one where everything can be easily distinguished, including four main human activities: living, working, enjoying free time, and moving around. This way of thinking had great success globally until it became clear that cities planned according to these rules did not take into account the real needs of their citizens.
People have been migrating to them since the creation of modern cities. This is still the case despite our increasingly romantic view of the countryside. This phenomenon speaks to our desire to come together as a collective and escape the elements, the outdoors, physical labour and dirt – it’s a reality.
According to Howard’s three-magnetism theory, rural areas are superior to cities in terms of natural beauty, fresh air, abundant water sources, and low rents. However, rural areas are disadvantaged by the lack of public spirit, lack of entertainment, long walks and low wages.
It is therefore important to rearrange that it will provide the basis for a more prosperous, cooperative and free human experience and address the lack of opportunity in rural settings.
The basic requirements for improving quality and quantity to meet the needs of urban residents are:
- Improve land use management for efficient and sustainable food production;
- protect the environment from pollution;
- Provide sufficient water for food production;
- Improve transport infrastructure for better access;
- Expand wholesale and retail markets;
- Arranging mobile vendors in low-income areas;
- Allow free dissemination of market information for better production and marketing decisions;
- Improved transportation to reduce food loss
The built space of the city makes sense on two levels simultaneously: the public, which conveys the grandeur and grandeur of the built space, the human nature of the multitude; and the private, where the personal experience is smaller – living in rooms on certain streets, visiting books Museums and shops, park at an abandoned church or cycle through known streets that are no longer anonymous or disorienting.
As in modern successful design practice, it depends on some common dynamics. Any boundaries between tradition and modernity are fluid and complex. Bypassed vernacular solutions, such as material and structural sensitivities, minimalism, modularity, and adaptability, as well as tactility and temporality or fluidity, are inherently modern. Drawing on similarity in principle rather than similarity in imagery, one can see the possibility of a bidirectional process of diffusion of ideas and technologies from traditional (vernacular) to modern (as in the contemporary example) or from modern to vernacular.
At the local level, efforts are needed to promote rural arts and crafts through local resources. The creation of alternative jobs is needed to deal with the precarious nature of the agricultural economy.
- Increase people’s freedom of choice by expanding the range of variables people choose.
- Improve people’s living standards.
Role Of An Architect:
“The role of architects is situation specific.” “A good architect does not have to be fazed by working under severe economic constraints, however drastic they might be. Having perforce to use only the humblest materials, such as mud or sun-dried adobe bricks, need not prevent him from creating a joyous and triumphal piece of architecture” (Charles Correa).
The role of the architect as a professional can be defined as “the process of protecting, improving and creating the built environment of the required quality under the specific conditions of each community in an ideal and sustainable world”.
Another important strategy in the process was to involve local people in the design and planning process. Architects can gain the necessary knowledge from user engagement to ensure their plans and designs meet intended goals most efficiently.
In such projects after the architect’s work is complete, locals can manage, evaluate maintenance and adjust design projects to meet changes in their needs. In this way, participants feel proud and are always willing to care for and seek it out (Wates and Kenvitt, 1987). The author is aware of this problem in a case she researched for a rural housing project in Kanhapur [Kanhapur: A small community of 25 units, Wardha District, Maharashtra, India, designed by CSV (Center of Alternate Science for Villages, Dattapur, Wardha, India) )], Maharashtra, India. During the construction phase of this particular project, participants were only involved in the mud and tile-making process but were never asked to participate in the design decision-making process. As a result, the community is now showing no enthusiasm and willingness to care about any sustainable technology designed and implemented in its built environment. They always expect planners and developers to do what is necessary for them.
Principles For Designing The Housing In Villages:
Housing is a major problem faced by villagers due to housing shortages, lack of services, poor planning, etc.
The following principles should be kept in mind when designing:
Principle 1: Villager housing should be considered in the context of sustainable development and serve as a carrier of their social and cultural identity.
Raise villagers’ awareness of sustainable development.
- Spatial planning of the built environment in the natural environment.
- Reduce demand for and dependence on the consumption of non-renewable natural resources.
- Find housing solutions within the framework of local indigenous trends.
Principle 2: Housing should be tailored to people’s conditions and needs.
- Learn and respect people’s culture: customs and traditions, way of life, social etiquette, economic activities, etc.
- Study the physical aspects of the community: housing layout, spatial planning measures, climate, topography, space use/spatial behaviour studies, available natural resources, etc. • Research various housing theories: fit for the environment, community acceptance, affordability issues, etc.
- Research and application of low-cost materials and methods: technologies that allow selection of local materials, adaptation to local climates and lifetime economic conditions of local people
- Respect local trends in local design.
The Role Of Public Spaces In Small Municipality:
The properties of the public space influence and limit its function, and the possibility of engaging in activities. Outdoor activities associated with public spaces can be categorized as essential, optional, and social. This division is related to the basic functions of public space:
- Services – providing access to destinations other than the common areas, transit, and further ensuring that the common areas and the facilities that make up the common areas (especially municipal facilities and housing) are accessible to users, including access to supplies, sanitation services and firefighters, technical infrastructure services and maintenance;
- Social – meet friends and residents to strengthen relationships (connections using communication technology are important today to replace personal connections);
- Social – meetings of residents and visitors at social events, including cultural events;
- Residential (Recreation and Recreation) – Primarily provided by types of public spaces where greenery dominates, especially parks.
According to Utzon, the stronger the relationship between architects and people, the better the project will be. Conversely, without this connection, we risk losing something more important: the humanity of the project as opposed to modernist planning.
- The unfulfilled promise of modernism (no date) Smartcitiesdive.com.
- Social issues, global development and modernism in the light of jurisprudence (no date) Legalserviceindia.com.
- (No date b) Diva-portal.org.
- Sutherland, A. (2018) Reinventing the rural: a new perspective on our countryside, Architectural Review.
- Anamika, A., Jiwane, V. and Sanyal, A. J. (no date) Redefining the role of architects in the rural development, Ijsr.net.
- Gebre, T. and Gebremedhin, B. (2019) “The mutual benefits of promoting rural-urban interdependence through linked ecosystem services,” Global ecology and conservation, 20(e00707), p. e00707. doi: 10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00707.
- Moravcová, J. et al. (2020) “The role of public spaces in small municipality,” in Almusaed, A., Almssad, A., and – Hong, L. T. (eds.) Sustainability in Urban Planning and Design. London, England: IntechOpen.
- Image1_ World Bank Staff_©SANGMOO KIM. (2015). World Bank Staff. [Photograph]