Modern architecture emerged at the end of the 19th century from revolutions in technology, engineering and building materials, and from a desire to break away from historical architectural styles and to invent something that was purely functional and new.
This list includes all the house styles which emerged by taking an inspiration from modern architecture but have their own unique definition and characteristics. 1-26 in the list are the styles classified on the basis of general characteristics and in a broader sense whereas 27-35 are the styles classified on the basis of a specific element in house design or plan.
1. ART DECO
Art Deco originated in the 1920s. Art Deco design represented modernism turned into fashion. The intention was to create a sleek and antitraditional elegance that symbolized wealth and sophistication. KEY ELEMENTS:
- Flat roofs.
- Smooth walls. The walls of art deco homes are often made of smooth stucco and have rounded corners.
- Bold exterior decorations. Buildings in the style were often decorated with zigzags, swans, lilies and sunrise motifs.
- Experimentation with interior materials. Art deco designers used “new” materials such as glass block, neon, chrome, mirrors and opaque glass panels.
2. INTERNATIONAL STYLE
The International Style is a major architectural style that was developed in the 1920s and 1930s and was closely related to modernism and modern architecture. This style includes great works like villa savoye by Le Corbusier.
- Rectangular shape
- Flat roof
- Utilitarian materials such as concrete, steel and glass
- Smooth, untextured surfaces
- Rounded corners
- A “weightless” quality, as if parts are floating
- One or more stories
- Open floor plans
- Continuation of utilitarian materials (e.g. concrete floors)
- Large, floor-to-ceiling windows
3. MID-CENTURY MODERN
Mid-Century Modern denotes a style of design that was popularized from the 1930s through the 1960s. This style includes great works like glass house by Philip Johnson, Farnsworth house by Ludwig mies van der rohe
Important elements of this style:
- Flat plane
- Big window
- Naturally integrated
- Warm and natural colors
- Clear separation with the openness
4. STREAMLINE MODERN
Streamline Modern is an international style of Art Deco architecture and design that emerged in the 1930s. It was inspired by aerodynamic design. Streamline architecture emphasized curving forms, long horizontal lines, and sometimes nautical elements.it is a style quite without ornament, apart from stringcourses and other trim emphasizing the horizontality of the design. Roofs are flat and parapeted. Walls, brick or concrete, are usually plastered. Glass block is much used for translucency and texturalcontrast.
Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture. One of the most prominent examples of a postmodern house is venturi house by Robert Venturi.
- Classical motifs
- Literary allusions
- Bright colors
- Structural variety and asymmetry
- Variety of materials and shapes
Brutalist architecture, or Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged in the mid-20th century and gained popularity in the late 1950s and 1960s. some of its features are:
- Rough surfaces
- Massive forms
- Unusual shapes
- Expression of structure
- Blocky appearance
Futurist architecture is an early-20th century form of architecture born in Italy, characterized by strong chromaticism, long dynamic lines, suggesting speed, motion, urgency and lyricism
four main components of Futurist architecture:
- Natural materials
Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture which appeared in the 1980s. It gives the impression of the fragmentation of the constructed building. It is characterized by an absence of harmony, continuity, or symmetry.Besides fragmentation, Deconstructivism often manipulates the structure’s surface skin and creates by non-rectilinear shapes which appear to distort and dislocate elements of architecture. The finished visual appearance is characterized by unpredictability and controlled chaos.
Constructivist architecture, or ‘constructivism’, is a form of modern architecture that developed in the Soviet Union in the 1920s.The main characteristic of constructivism was the application of 3D cubism to abstract and non-objective elements. The style incorporated straight lines, cylinders, cubes and rectangles.The possibilities of modern materials were also explored, such as steel frames that supported large areas of glazing, exposed rather than concealed building joints, balconies and sun decks.
10. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE
Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space and the ecosystem at large. Key features:
- Ventilation systems – efficient heating and cooling design
- Lighting and appliances are energy efficient
- Large, intelligently placed windows bring in natural light
- Plumbing fixtures are designed to save water
- Rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse
- Open rainscreens allow air in through sidings, remove stagnant air
- Wooden slats on pool decks allow water to drain naturally
- Landscaping includes native vegetation
- Maximum possible solar energy collection and use of wind power
- Natural, non-toxic material used for interiors and exteriors of building
- Locally obtained wood and stone, reducing long-distance transport
- Innovative use of old structures
- Recycling of architectural features
- Positioned on site to maximize sunlight, winds and take advantage of natural shelters